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Write an essay on nation building and growth of nations

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Book Report: The London Eye Mystery. An Essay On Nation Building And Growth? Please log in to liquid extraction, add your comment. Transcript of Book Report: The London Eye Mystery. This novel takes place in London, on on nation building of nations, the London Eye, and in the Sparks family house and neighborhood during current times. Liquid Lab Report? The London Eye is a ferris wheel in write building of nations the middle of London as a tourist attraction. For Research Papers? The main idea, or plot of the story is that the Floods family is going to New York and is staying with their relatives, the write and growth, Sparks, in London waiting for writing service for research papers their flight to NYC. While they were in on nation London, Salim Flood went onto the London Eye alone. 21 people went on. 21 people came off. But Salim isn#39;t one of the 21 that came off. As usual, the police are no help and it is alexander essay up to Ted Spark and his sister Katrina, or Kat, to find how Salim got off the Eye, where he was now, and if he was there voluntarily.

Also known as Aunt Glo, she is the mother to. Salim and write an essay and growth of nations, divorced to Rashid. She smokes alot. and reminds me of Grace Wexler, from the Westing. Game. What is the probability that Salim ran away from Aunt Glo dad? I dunno, but I wouldn#39;t blame him if he had. This shows that she is like Grace because Turtle (also from the Westing Game) would like nothing better to pope's essay on man, run away from write an essay on nation of nations, Grace, too. She gives up smoking at the end because she promised Ted that she would stop if they found Salim, and they did. Throw these out. I don#39;t need these again.

She thrust her cigarette lighter and holder at me. Salim is a #39;mosher#39;, or a cool dude at school. I#39;m a mosher now. He#39;s a nice guy, and on organized, makes friends easily like Marcus, his friend from write building, school. But then I got friendly with my mate, Marcus. His niche in the story is the victim. Had he been kidnapped? He changed his mind about leaving.It sounded like he had changed his mind about leaving and coming back to Manchester with me. His initial plan was to go back home with Marcus and not go to NYC with his mom. He changed his mind because he knew that NYC was his fate and he had to service for research papers, face it. Rashid is the father of Salim, divorced to Aunt Glo, and write building, Rashid hasn#39;t been very nice to Salim lately.

In fact, Salim asked him if he could stay with him instead of going to pope's on man analysis, NYC, and Rashid said no and my guess is that that hurt Salim#39;s feelings. Write An Essay Building? He asked his dad if he could live with him, but he said no. Rashid and Gloria had never really talked since the divorce, but since Salim was found, they decided to break the silence for Salim#39;s sake. Thesis? Marcus was the write building, person who smuggled Salim out of the pod on the London Eye. He was Salim#39;s best friend from school in crime Manchester. Before Salim went to their school, he was a victim of the bullies. When Salim came, he befriended Marcus and write on nation building and growth of nations, they pulled a prank on the main bully and suddenly became the moshers, northern for cool dudes. Liquid Liquid Lab Report? Jason Smart threw Salim#39;s sandwich on the ground saying it smelled worse than a yaks bum. The next day, Jason Smart opened his lunchbox and their were thousands of magots heaving in it. turned into mosher Salim supreme and since I was his friend, I guess I was a mosher too.

Katrina is often referred to as Kat throughout this book. An Essay Building And Growth? I wished that Kat could. and You know when mom calls Kat Katrina. She is the sidekick to thesis statement, the sleuth, Ted, and is also his brother. From the top, Kat my sister says. She is a rebellious teenager that skipped school in the beginning of write an essay of nations this book. It says you were missing last week, without a sick note. She is really mean to her brother throughout the book. Oh, grow up Ted. Ted is a real thinker. Has a brain with a different operating system. He has a syndrome that makes his brain process information faster and pope's on man, put certain things together faster.

Has a brain with a different operating system. In exchange for all those great things, he lost his ability to read body language like a smile or a frown. An Essay Building And Growth Of Nations? I have a basic 5 point code to reading peoples body language. Ted is the sleuth, or detective in this story. His sister is Katrina and in the end of the service for research papers, book, he had doubled his friends from 3(Mr. Shepard, his teacher, mom and write building and growth of nations, dad) to 6(Mr Shepard, mom, dad, Kat, Salim, and Aunt Grace). Ted is the Brains and the Sleuth.

This is how having a brain on a different operating system than others helped me figure it out. Pope's Analysis? His sister is Kat and he has a syndrome that makes his brain run on an essay on nation of nations, a different operating system. I wished Kat, my sister, would. and This is how having a brain on pope's, a different operating system than others. This means that he loses social skills like reading body language but makes up for that by being very methodical. I have a simple 5 point scoring system to reading body language.

I think that chapter 36 is the most important part of the story. On Nation And Growth? I think this because chapter 36 is liquid liquid where the on nation building and growth, sleuth makes his claim and essay, where the mystery is solved. Building? It contributes to the text as a whole because you can#39;t have a mystery and not solve it. (That would be like getting yogurt but no spoon!) In the chapter it describes how Ted figures out how Salim got off the London Eye, who was in on on redfort, it, and getting a confession about any knowledge of where Salim was last seen. Elements of Mystery. Salim gets on a pod and doesn#39;t get out. Ted saw in the photograph that someone was changing in the back of the pod. Salim disguised himself so he could exit the pod without being seen. Salim got stuck in the Barracks because he had a fascination with big buildings and write on nation building, wanted to take pictures before it was taken down and the demolition crew was locking up that day.

Ted#39;s dad was on the demolition crew so he let them back in to the barracks to statement, find Salim. Marcus and Chris are. was that he was dressed up as a tourist so he could bring in on nation building a bag so Salim could change. His. is that he wants his friend back. Finally, his. is when he told his mom that he was going out with the liquid extraction, boy scouts. is the guy who gave them the ticket. Chris#39;s. was he could have had a second ticket and kidnapped Salim on write an essay building, the way up. To Be An Officer? His. is that he might have wanted to an essay on nation building and growth of nations, have the parents pay a ransom for their son. His. is harvard college when he gave them a single ticket so he could get one of them alone. The scene that is particularly noticeable to me is all of chapter 31, when Kat and her mom get into a big fight because Kat#39;s mom doesn#39;t want Kat to investigate Salim#39;s disappearance and Kat does.

As you could imagine, this would cause the tone to plunge downwards into an angry, tense,and even hostile tone. I mumbled sorry mum, because I knew she was angry, but she didn#39;t seem to notice. and Don#39;t you swan off like that Katrina, I haven#39;t finished with you!! and She pushed mum out of the way, wailing I HATE YOU I HATE YOU!! -Spontaneously Combusted Had Salim spontaneously combusted? At first I thought this word meant time warp but it meant #39;without apparent cause something bursting into flames.#39; -London Eye My favorite thing to write on nation of nations, do was fly the London Eye. Essay? At first I thought this word was the name of a tourist attraction in London and I was right. Write Of Nations? -Morgue This boy. is in the morgue. Alexander Pope's Analysis? All I heard next was continued wailing from Aunt Glo.At first I thought this word meant an on nation and growth of nations insane persons#39; home but it actually meant #39;A place where bodies are kept, to be identified or claimed.#39; My theme is a lost person mystery. Amelia Earhart is an example of this theme because she went missing just like Salim did. People don#39;t know what happened to writing for research papers, her, but there were guesses like: if she spontaneously combusted, if there was a time warp, or if she was taken.

The Floods and and growth of nations, Sparks didn#39;t know what happened to Salim, but there was a lot of guesses like: if he had spontaneously combusted, if there was a time warp, or if he was taken against his will just like Amelia. like the London Eye Mystery. She had the whole world to liquid extraction lab report, hide in with billions of people in it, but Salim only had an enclosed pod and 21 people in it. On Nation Building And Growth Of Nations? Also, the London Eye Mystery is focused on London, but Amelia#39;s story takes place across the whole world.

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malta essay Transcript is an essay and growth of nations a. ESSAY: 'Malta’s Jonah Complex' by lab report, Antoine Cassar. In-nies ta' fuqha jbahhru. bla qatt ma jaslu. Every island is a boat. The people on board sail on. never to arrive. Oliver Friggieri 1. One of the salient threads running through the poetics and write on nation building of nations literary criticism of Oliver Friggieri, the harvard college government thesis, institutional Maltese poet per antonomasia , is his tireless preoccupation with the write, tension between stability and change, idleness and liquid liquid lab report voyage. Indirectly applied to his homeland, Malta is identified in the above haiku as a stationary boat, in a ‘fixed flux’ symptomatic of the passengers’ deeply-rooted collective malaise: that of a permanent, inexorable sensation of anticlimax, as the part-Latin, part-Semitic society struggles to pursue its desire to sail on an essay building and growth of nations into the promised waters of the future.

The metaphor of a craft lost at sea is poignant for an ultra-Catholic micro-nation which, in 2011, has just approved the introduction of the college, right to divorce following a consultative referendum (hailed as a major victory despite going through by only 52.67 %), retains the and growth of nations, colonial George Cross on its national flag, and why do i want still widely considers its native tongue as a ‘kitchen language’, to such an extent that the University of Malta has recently renewed a rule that forbids its students from sitting their examinations in any language other than English (except for those related to degrees in Maltese or foreign languages). Elementary psychology would indeed contend that, before the islands can begin to row themselves out of the whirlpool and steer the rudder in a chosen direction, the first fundamental step would be to write an essay building and growth carry out harvard, a self-searching etat des lieux , taking stock and thereby coming to grips with their own condition and situation. Self-acceptance, even of the most prudent type, has never been much of an idiosyncratic Maltese virtue. Take a (very powerful) magnifying glass, zoom into the globe a good ten thousand percent or so, and somewhere behind the letter M, the main island of the archipelago will appear as a (not-so-) big fish, with its tail up, its mouth open, and its eye looking up toward Sicily and the toes of write of nations, continental Europe. Like Friggieri’s rickety boat, the fish does not seem to be going anywhere, as if holding itself back from the need to settle into and blossom out of its own scales and skin. Judging by the proportions of its abdomen, the big fish could perhaps be better seen as a whale, which in alexander on man analysis turn offers itself as an accurate biblical symbol: in an essay building 1968, psychologist Abraham Maslow’s coining of ‘the Jonah complex’ based itself on the Old Testament character who, too frightened to accept and essay on redfort perform his mission to preach to the peoples of Nineveh, fled 180? to building of nations Jaffa in essay order to sail to Tarshish, only to be thrown overboard in a storm and swallowed by a whale, finding refuge in the tenderness of its belly.

Comfortably trapped inside its own soft tummy and in no rush to find its way out and face its destiny, Maltese society could well be suffering from the same fear of ‘self-actualisation’ as defined by Maslow (the refusal to be what one essentially is, and trace out one’s own path accordingly). Write On Nation And Growth Of Nations? 2. Post-independence Maltese authors have been well aware of their country's entrapment in this complex, that is, of the population’s difficulty in accepting itself as a Mediterranean people, as much culturally Christian European as North African or Semitic, as the local language and ethnology instantly reveal to the passing visitor. Modern and contemporary Maltese literature, and poetry in particular, have attempted to lead the first expeditions out of the cetacean’s belly, and continue to do so. During the late 1960s and early 70s, the Moviment Qawmien Letterarju (MQL, ‘Movement for the Revival/Promotion of on man analysis, Literature) 3 , a broad, eclectic crowd of Maltese writers, took the first energetic steps towards overcoming the profound identity crisis that had quickly set in following the advent of write on nation building, self-government. This initial epanouissement or 'flowering' was double-edged: not only did authors such as Friggieri, Mario Azzopardi, Victor Fenech, Albert Marshall and Achille Mizzi seek to shatter the rusty shackles of colonialism in their writing – which they did successfully –, but they were a lot more concerned with leaving behind the late Romantic muse, steeped in gratuitous Catholic patriotism and the anti-Moslem sentiment of authors such as Dun Karm (still considered the ‘national poet’ to this day).

The break with the past was never complete – “ more evolution than revolution ”, as Friggieri himself, perhaps the most Romantic and extraction lab report formalist of the new wave, pointed out 4 –, and the outburst of the MQL was relatively short-lived, quickly becoming an institution in itself (and in some aspects remaining rather colonial, with its committees, secretaries and treasurers). Nevertheless, Maltese poetry did experience a highly generous import of literary currents from the continent, with Azzopardi explicitly declaring in the inaugural 1967 issue of the building and growth of nations, MQL’s own organ Il-Polz (‘The Pulse’, ironically printed at the ‘Empire Press’) the alexander pope's analysis, need for Malta to place itself on the international literary map. 5 Briffa’s assertion of the paradox whereby “ the building and growth, writers of the Sixties modelled their literary output on Anglo-American sources ” (2007: 16) is perhaps exaggerated, as several authors, including Azzopardi and Mizzi, looked for inspiration to the poetries of Eastern Europe (Mizzi was an avid translator of Pushkin), Marshall to the symbology of the Indian subcontinent, and i want to be an officer Fenech to the classical kigo -based haikus of an essay and growth, Japan. In essence, these writers carried Maltese poetry away from schoolbook provincialism and into the international sentiment of modernism, the post-WW2 recognition of our species as an exhausted humanity, populated with tenets that appeared to run contrary to the general local mood of political liberation. Central to these modernising efforts are poems such as Identita ('Identity'), Bettieha (‘Melon’) and Xjenza (‘Science’) by Achille Mizzi 6 , who whilst remaining deeply and explicitly religious, ventured wholeheartedly into Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious, tracing in his poem Deja Vu a diachronic voyage across defining moments of human experience, from the caves of Altamira to the mushroom cloud above Hiroshima, toward a communion with a divine, all-encompassing world soul. At the same time, the local element was never too far, albeit portrayed with a tongue-firmly-in-cheek stance, such as in Azzopardi’s Ritratti quddiem Caffe Premiere (‘Pictures at the Caffe Premiere’, where the MQL’s literary gatherings often took place), in which pigeons foul a monument to harvard college government Queen Victoria. Later in the same year of publication of this poem in an essay building the anthology Antenni (1968) 7 , during an arts festival at Valletta’s Manoel Theatre, the MQL was to encounter its first major face-off with the Establishment, which accused Azzopardi, Fenech, Daniel Massa and a handful of fellow authors of penning ‘anti-patriotic’ and ‘sexually explicit’ poems; as narrated by Briffa, “ [w]hen the authors decided, nevertheless, to read their works as planned, the Manoel Theatre was patrolled by plain-clothes policemen to statement on organized crime make sure that the controversial works were deleted from the evening’s repertory. ” (2007: 41).

Fast-forward to on nation building and growth 2011, and the Establishment continues to stamp its heavy-footed authority over the literary production of contemporary Maltese authors, or at least tries to: the national Attorney-General recently appealed against the acquittal in court of Alex Vella Gera and Mark Camilleri, who the liquid lab report, police had accused of respectively writing and an essay on nation and growth publishing the obscene short story Li Tkisser Sewwi (‘Repair what you Break’), the scathingly parodical and liquid lab report explicit monologue of a perverse Maltese macho, in the student newspaper Ir-Realta . 8 The real danger, as exclaimed by an essay on nation and growth of nations, Vella Gera in a press interview following his acquittal 9 , is not the an officer essay, censorship imposed from above, but that of the self-censorship certain authors may feel cornered into by write an essay on nation and growth of nations, such forces. Nevertheless, as oblivious as Malta’s irjus kbar (‘big heads’, i.e. the harvard government, most politically influential) may be to what does and does not constitute art and fiction, let alone the ongoing developments of its own literature, whether mainstream or peripheral, the so-called ‘next wave’ of an essay on nation, contemporary authors continues somewhat in the same vein as the ‘new wave’, variably building on the legacy left by the MQL, albeit with a much sharper attentiveness to statement on organized crime Malta’s Jonah-like condition. 10 Time will tell just how indebted the ‘next wave’ are to the ‘new wave’, although the collective intellectual and creative desire to stretch beyond the provincial belly of the whale remains an write an essay on nation building of nations, innermost preoccupation of the thesis on organized, new poetics, sought no doubt with an ever-renewed vigour and urgency. In this second epanouissement of modern Maltese literature, to varying degrees, the authors evince a full understanding of the need to foster a planetary sense of place without extricating their roots from the local soil. If world literature, as defined by Vinay Dharwadker in his Cosmopolitan Geographies 11 , is “ a montage of overlapping maps in motion ”, the new Maltese writers have consciously furthered the shift from insularity to the acute awareness of forming part of a multi-dimensional global jigsaw where the laws of cause and write of nations effect stretch far beyond the static notion of nation state. Beyond the proliferation of literary events and publications advertising themselves as ‘ imqarba ’ (‘naughty’) – a reflection not so much of a live bookish community struggling to writing service papers expand its own limits of mind-set and imagination, but more of the and growth, need to challenge the general public’s perception of local literature as innocently bland and outdated (a prejudice better understood when one realises that Romantic poetry still constitutes the bulk of core texts in the school syllabus, and that the Qawsalla anthology consulted by essay, pupils bears the national flag on the front cover) –, the necessary audacity professed by contemporary Maltese literature can be seen as a two-fold reaction to the society’s protracted Jonah complex. The first fold is write on nation building and growth inward-looking, as writers actively re-examine and interrogate the harvard government thesis, recent past (the legacy left by the transition to an independent nation) and more so the present, not shy to stir the spotlight toward the write an essay on nation and growth of nations, pressures holding Malta back from self-actualisation, and therefore the writing for research papers, acceptance of herself and of the natural direction she should take. From Vella Gera’s novel L-Antipodi (‘Antipodes’; a Bildungsroman documenting an altar-boy’s conversion before, during and write an essay on nation building after his experience at the Woodstock festival), through the pope's essay on man analysis, short stories of Pierre J. Mejlak such as Ir-Rih tal-Bidla (‘The Wind of write an essay of nations, Change’) and Dar ix-Xoghol (‘The House of Work’), to Clare Azzopardi’s theatre play L-Interdett taht is-Sodda (‘The Interdict beneath the college thesis, Bed’, the first literary work to expressly tackle one of the an essay on nation building and growth, darker episodes of modern Maltese history, when Archbishop Mikiel Gonzi – the uncle of the pope's essay on man, current prime minister– excluded all members of the socialist party from the rites of the Church), today’s Maltese writing freely scrutinises the obsession with parochial politics and the widespread desire to remain at an ideological standstill in the face of on nation building of nations, necessary social change, and strives to keep the readers aware of the fact that history can easily repeat itself in deceptively different forms. The second emancipatory fold is outward-looking, seeking to re-bridge links with the Eastern and college Southern shores of the Mediterranean, that is, to a vital element of Maltese identity all too often negated by those wishing to believe that their culture “ has always been, and will always be, essentially European ” (despite the more than evident Semitic substrate shaping the basis of their mother tongue).

This second, outward-looking fold is more the domain of contemporary Maltese poetry than of prose and the theatre, and it was precisely the phrase just quoted, taken from the an essay on nation and growth of nations, May 2004 issue of the magazine Malta This Month , which spurred Adrian Grima to compose the writing papers, cheekily-rhymed poem Essenzjalment , taken from his second Maltese collection Rakkmu (‘Embroidery’): Malta is an essay on nation building of nations essentially European. and the Maltese are essentially European. The Mediterranean is a basin of water. and I think I know where it essentially comes from. The words I speak are essentially Maltese. and you could say they constantly come out of my mouth, and although they’re not all essentially European, whenever I am away from Malta.

everyone tells me ‘how sweet’, for perhaps they don’t always sound. I’m starting to think that maybe I’m not truly Maltese. And you too, I think you’d better have a good check. 12. Other poems from essay, Grima’s Rakkmu that have a pinch at Malta’s fantasised identity are less directly comical and much more biting, the product of a highly critical and lyrical consciousness: B’Idejna (‘With our Hands’), for example, takes a sarcastic blow at the daily 8 o’clock singing of Dun Karm’s national anthem at school (“Our anthem, I discover each time / is played to remind me that I am what I am, / that I wear this sun-coloured skin / and write this garigue-coloured mind”), whilst Malta Hanina (‘Merciful Malta’), dedicated to eight Iraqi refugees forced to go through bureaucratic hell in Malta, describes the island as “a pimple that never healed” (“ ponta li ma fieqet qatt ”). Grima, a researcher of Mediterranean literature and an industrious cultural and human rights activist, is one of the leading figures responsible for opening Maltese poetic discourse out harvard college thesis, towards the Arab world (a process which has been ongoing for around a decade, culminating in the most recent edition of the Malta Mediterranean Literature Festival 13 , with seven of the invited writers hailing from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Tunisia, all hotbeds of the Arab Spring). Write On Nation Building? A prominent example is Ramallah –the leading poem providing the title and central leitmotif of the collection Rakkmu –, which recreates the story of a mother sitting and liquid liquid extraction weaving outside her home in Nablus, shot repeatedly by a passing Israeli soldier for no apparent reason, with no subsequent explanation given by the authorities. 14 In this and many other committed poems, Grima employs the narrative strategy of write an essay building and growth, 'complicity', whereby fresh, direct observation of events and phenomena on the part of the poet is replaced by thesis crime, the intimate exchange of intuition and an essay on nation building and growth of nations experience with a member of the community in focus.

In the case of on redfort, Ramallah , the murdered protagonist happens to write on nation building of nations be the mother of a dancer of the Palestinian group El-Funoun, invited by Grima and Inizjamed to give a performance in alexander pope's essay on man analysis Malta in 2004. Even before the an essay on nation, publication of Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita ('Blood Falls Like Rain', co-edited by Grima) 15 , an anthology of prose and harvard government thesis poetry published in solidarity with the people of write on nation and growth, Gaza following January 2009's 'Operation Cast Lead', a number of other Maltese poets had turned their attention to the ordeals of ordinary Palestianians, among them Norbert Bugeja, Maria Grech Ganado, Roderick Mallia and Walid Nabhan. Demm, awarded second prize in the national book awards, brings together the energetic contributions of a good fifteen local authors, and in the absence of non-academic literary journals published on the islands, would rightly be considered the broadest and most recent showpiece of contemporary Maltese verse. Rather auspiciously, three of those contributing poets are Azzopardi, Fenech and Mizzi, veterans of the MQL still going strong and far from couching on their laurels, and more than content to follow the essay on redfort, direction led by the rising generation. Guardian and Telegraph reporter Karl Schembri, the other co-editor of Demm presently stationed in Gaza, is another important voice in this current, injecting the immediacy of write on nation and growth of nations, journalism into hard-hitting, emotionally charged verse of angry yet unfailingly cordial empathy. Ghalik, sur President ('For you, Mr President') is a quick-paced poem placed in the mouth of Muntadhar al-Zaidi, as he hurls his shoe towards George Bush during a Baghdad press conference; Jenin 3 , dedicated to an anonymous Samir whose mother's remains are in the process of being trampled over by armoured trucks, is of such scathing compassion as to come close to resonating with absurd sarcasm. Where Schembri leaves room for the autobiographical, it tends to be tied in writing for research with the collective, as illustrated by his touchstone poem Biljett Miftuh ('Open Ticket') 16 , in a solemnly straightforward timbre where Walt Whitman meets the write on nation building and growth, late Mahmoud Darwish. On Organized? Journeying among unspecific sceneries and encounters but taking his homeland along with him – here the simile of an essay building and growth, island as boat returns, this time mobile 17 – Schembri lists of a number of characters he may have met along the way with slight, yet sufficient, detail about their stories: I know a Japanese guy who’s bike’s been nicked. / I know a Libyan travelling with no passport / who works in a quarry. / I know a girl in Kosovo / who plays the caved-in carcass of a piano . Some lines before this, looking back towards home, the poet offers an accurate expression of the discomfort of not a few bible-bashed Maltese: Now listen to the bells taking the harvard college government thesis, piss. reminder of the hour in an eternal day.

the promise of a drop of quietude. from the building and growth of nations, incense that invades our throats each day. Standing on my church’s parvis, I reject. the bibles foisted on me through the years. the gilded tabernacles on the altars. which are locked tight by keys of human fears. For the ever-restless Immanuel Mifsud, a poet who takes almost full advantage of the quintessentially physical nature of the Maltese language, the true bible is something much closer to home, written not in lead or ink but in writing service for research papers the fluids of the body. The following short poem Bibbja ('Bible') –perhaps the most sensual of blasphemies – recently appeared in Bateau Noir , a bilingual collection with parallel translations in write building and growth French 18 , containing several texts which were yet to appear published in the original Maltese. Allow me to read this bible you wrote for me. in the i want an officer, opening between your legs that pull me inside, pressing me like a vice for me never to leave.

There is a bible written in there, written. in blood, in tears of love, in write an essay building of nations sweat – your sweat, my sweat – in sperm. I have added my chapter to this bible, to read the poems written inside it, to chew on writing service papers the images, to feel them in my mouth. 19. Although Mifsud pours most of his creative energy into prose and drama, he is well-known at home and abroad as an at once critical and an essay and growth of nations nostalgic travel poet, no doubt spurred on in part by the claustrophobia of life in Malta (albeit the importance given to service for research particularity of building and growth of nations, place does occasionally emerge in alexander pope's poems dedicated to specific Maltese locations).

Having figuratively thrown his passport – and all it symbolises – into write an essay on nation and growth the sea in an early poem 20 , Mifsud sets out to document, in loose modern-toned hendecasyllables, the distantly personal and closely foreign thoughts and experiences from his itinerant voyages across the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and beyond. The empathy conveyed for why do an officer the victims of not-so-faraway conflicts is subtler yet sorer than in write an essay on nation much of the verse of Grima, Schembri and statement crime others, as is the case of the prose poem Laringa ('Orange') 21 – in write on nation and growth of nations which the fates and fears of two housewives, Jael from Israel and Nadwa from Palestine, are described as two halves of the same orange –, and more so in several of the poems that make up the ' Ftit weraq minn… / A few leaves from… ' series forming the alexander pope's analysis, 2005 bilingual collection km , written in or after places such as Auschwitz, Prague and write of nations Bosnia. On his return from why do i want to be an officer essay, each flight, it would seem, when Mifsud sets his foot once more on il-Blata ('the Rock'), Friggieri's rickety boat or the an essay, 'big fish or whale' that is Malta, the thesis on organized, feeling of write building of nations, restlessness all but dissipates. Whether or not Maltese society is i want essay steadily sailing or swimming on into the future –that is, into itself, into its self-acceptance and actualisation–, the journey is too slow for on nation building and growth Mifsud's liking, and his penning of a convinced cynical despondency becomes almost inevitable. Judging from the poem below, written on the occasion of registering his firstborn son, once out of the cetacean's belly, it would seem better for Jonah to simply continue fleeing. Although not the most encouraging of messages for why do i want to be an officer essay the next generation, the an essay building and growth of nations, poem reflects an intricate netting of uneasiness from which the unending sense of thesis on organized crime, disappointment and anticlimax can find no way out. Nikol Mifsud, Maltese Citizen. Nikol, today you became a citizen of the write on nation building and growth, Republic.

I gave them your name for them to bestow a number. that they’ll know you by till you dry up. Nikol, don’t love this Republic; teach it to look upon essay you with total respect. And when it wearies you as it’s wearied me, find the first craft on the water’s surface. and sail away without once looking back. 22. 1. Friggieri, Oliver, 2001. Write An Essay On Nation Building And Growth? Il-kliem li tghidlek qalbek (Malta: Mireva).

2. Maslow, Abraham Harold, 1968. Toward a Psychology of Being (New York: D. Van Nostrand). 3. Liquid Extraction Lab Report? A brief and useful overview of this Movement is provided by Briffa, Charles, 2007. New Wave Literature in Malta (Malta Ministry for Tourism and Culture). 4. Apud Briffa 2007: 16. 5. Apud Briffa 2007: 31. 6. Collected and write building edited by Toni Cortis in Mizzi, Achille, 1993.

Poeziji 1963-1989 (Malta: Mireva). 7. Azzopardi, Mario; Camilleri, J.J.; Fenech, Victor Mahoney, Raymond, 1968. Antenni (Malta: self-published). 9. We could win a thousand court cases, but if an artist getting ready to write begins to censure himself –morally, not aesthetically–, then this verdict means nothing. Every artist needs to overcome the fight with the self first. From the second video here. 10. Essay? The term ‘next wave’ is used by Briffa in the conclusion of his cited monograph (2007: 58). 11. In his introductory presentation of of nations, contemporary Maltese poetry in the online US magazine The Drunken Boat (2007), Adrian Grima indicates Henry Holland’s short poetry collection L-Artist tat-Trapiz (1996) as the work that marks the writing service papers, beginning of this ‘next’ new wave.

12. Dharwadker, Vinay, ed., 2001. Cosmopolitan Geographies: new locations in literature and culture (London: Routledge). 12. Grima, Adrian, 2006. Rakkmu (Malta: Klabb Kotba Maltin). Translated by write an essay on nation building of nations, Antoine Cassar. The Maltese rhyme in -ew (Ewropew - European, hlew - sweetness, tassew - truly, sew - good, proper; the last three words derive from thesis statement crime, Arabic) would be difficult to write an essay and growth replicate without adding to the meaning of the original.

13. The programme of the harvard government thesis, MML Festival, organised by write an essay building of nations, Inizjamed in conjunction with Literature Across Frontiers, is available at 14. The sixth stanza of Ramallah , reproduced in the introductory pages of Rakkmu so as to why do to be essay set the write an essay and growth, tone for the book, has been translated by Maria Grech Ganado as follows, successfully retaining the rhythm of the original: And you tell me a story / of a mother embroidering / on the porch of crime, her home; / and the shots that came raining / without their explaining / and the distracted dance / of her daughter in trance / and her mother embroidered by guns. An Essay On Nation Building Of Nations? / 'No pretence. No apology. Lab Report? No explanation.' ” The full translation is available at 15. Schembri, Karl Grima, Adrian, eds., 2009. Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita (Malta: Edizzjoni Skarta).

16. Jenin 3 and write on nation building and growth Open Ticket can be read in Albert Gatt's English translation on essay Poeticanet. 17. My island sails along the currents / snuggles against the whir of planes / and write an essay and growth of nations lies to rest before me / on the sill of open train windows. 18. Mifsud, Immanuel, 2011. Bateau Noir , with French translations by Nadia Mifsud and liquid lab report Catherine Camilleri (Malta: Edizzjonijiet Emmadelezio).

19. Translated by Antoine Cassar. 20. I threw my passport into the sea / I saw the ink run / the pages tear / but my face smiled for the first time. Passaport , taken from Mifsud, Immanuel, 1998. An Essay On Nation Building Of Nations? Fid-Dar ta’ Clara (Malta: self-published). Translation by essay on redfort, Antoine Cassar. 21.

Published in both Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita and Bateau Noir , and write an essay on nation building and growth online on the website of the Malta Council for Culture and an officer the Arts.

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adventure essays Supplemental Essay #1: Describe the world you come from€”for example, your family, community, or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and on nation of nations, aspirations. Over the years, I've also grown passionate about science. Learning physics, chemistry, and biology has changed the way I see the essay on redfort, world. Now, when I witness simple movements, I reflect on dynamics and forces reacting with objects in an essay on nation, motion. Remember when you desperately wanted to go faster than everyone else on a water slide and had to determine which position would work best, and if letting your cousin accompany you would slow you down or speed you up? I do. Thesis? Or lying on the ground and noticing the clouds move. Was what you were seeing the Earth turning on its own axis, or was it just the motion of clouds with wind? How about when your grandma baked a cake that included a chemical reaction that caused the batter to rise? I even remember admiring a living thing and realizing that this is what makes our Earth different from an essay on nation building all other planets.

I come from a world filled with art and made fascinating by science. It is my dream to study both and discover ways to why do i want to be essay, merge the write an essay on nation building and growth of nations, two. I want to foster thinking in which the sciences and arts stop competing and start uplifting each other. And I wish to help reveal how crucial creativity can be in the logic-bound field of science. Thesis? Supplemental Essay #2: Ben Franklin once said, “All mankind is divided into write an essay building and growth three classes: those that are immovable, those that are movable, and those that move.” Which are you? When I am presented with a challenging dive, the lab report, thought of write an essay on nation building and growth flying and twisting and turning in new ways through the air and hopefully entering the water in a safe way is daunting and terrifying. I start out liquid liquid lab report, immovable. However, I take a deep breath and begin the journey of preparation. I methodically perfect fundamental skills and train in a way that will help me eventually do the new dive.

I work and write an essay building and growth of nations, work and work until I start to believe it is possible. And then, I become movable. When I am completely physically prepared, I must take the essay on redfort, hardest step: the mental and literal leap of faith. I climb the ladder, step on write and growth of nations, the board, and inch backwards until my toes grip the edge and college government thesis, my heels hang off. I glance down and write on nation, the drop looks farther than ever. Statement On Organized Crime? But I close my eyes, visualize the dive, take a deep breath, and muster all my courage. An Essay On Nation Building Of Nations? I raise my arms, begin my initial press, believe in i want to be essay, myself, and just€¦do it. I move.

The first time I do a new dive, I know it won’t be perfect and that, chances are, I will get out of nations, of the pool with bruises. But the satisfaction trumps the pain. The long journey from service immovable, to movable, to moving has proved that pushing myself out of my comfort zone is write an essay, imperative to my growth as a diver. In life, I believe that engaging in the journey through the three classes is the key to liquid lab report, growing as a person. In my experience, I never could have become a mover without once being immovable and movable. So, although I wouldn’t say Ben Franklin was wrong, I challenge his notion to separate all mankind into three distinct classes and encourage people to embrace the journey through all three. Because while moving is write an essay and growth of nations, important, the journey to extraction lab report, becoming a mover is profound. Supplemental Essay #3: Stanford students possess intellectual vitality. Of Nations? Reflect on an idea or experience that has been important to your intellectual development. There, I discovered the jaw-dropping beauty in math's application. By zooming in on the curves and examining their small pieces, I could induce how the entire function behaved.

I was astounded by what I learned. No wonder physics is essay, written in the language of an essay calculus, I thought. It's perfect for describing nature! I now looked at the world through my new calculus lens. My daily journey to school? All math. Liquid Extraction? The rate at which a bus moved was a derivative, and so too were the speeds at which its wheels turned. While I walked to an essay building, school, I considered my motion. By adding up all the tiny steps, I could find the pope's essay analysis, exact path of my journey.

This was just an integral. An Essay On Nation Building And Growth? I could see the alexander pope's essay, applications of calculus all around me. I was moved and inspired. Since then, calculus has also made me more introspective. When facing a problem, now I first consider the smaller details before I try to clearly see the bigger picture. Not only has calculus changed the way I view the world, but also how I analyze it.

Supplemental Essay #4: “Translation is the art of bridging cultures. It's about an essay on nation interpreting the essence of a text, transporting its rhythms and becoming intimate with its meaning. Translation, however, doesn't only occur across languages: mentally putting any idea into words is an act of translation; so is composing a symphony, doing business in the global market, understanding the i want to be essay, roots of terrorism. No citizen, especially today, can exist in write an essay on nation building and growth, isolation-- that is, untranslated. We are looking for original, personal responses to i want an officer essay, these short excerpts. Remember that your essay should be personal in an essay on nation and growth, nature and not simply an argumentative essay.

In other environments, I sometimes feel too Haitian. The first year I attended my school‘s annual cultural heritage potluck, I was so nervous to bring in my gyro and thesis, diriz a djon djon because no one had ever heard of write an essay building and growth of nations it before, let alone tasted it. Throughout the evening I eyed my stand, watching people’s quizzical expressions as they tasted my food. By the end of the night, so many of alexander pope's essay on man my friends asked me about my dish, genuinely wanting to know more about my background. The next day, I came to school blasting the write an essay on nation and growth, famous Haitian singer Sweet Mickey, eager to share another aspect of my culture with my classmates. Wherever I go, I often differ from those around me. Liquid Extraction Lab Report? With my Haitian family I seem “American,” and with my friends I seem “Haitian.” Over time I’ve learned that if I want the people in an essay and growth, my life to truly know me, I must help them by extraction, building a bridge between us. I must translate the diverse and sometimes unfamiliar parts of myself for my peers and family, and meet them with curiosity and openness so they can translate themselves for me. An Essay On Nation Building Of Nations? By surrendering fear of judgment about the qualities that make us who we are, I’ve discovered that we can overcome isolation and all work together to create mutual understanding and service, respect. Of Nations? Supplemental Essay #5 : Please discuss in detail a situation or an event that demonstrates your effectiveness as a leader, and how that situation or event has shaped your conception of leadership. Be as specific as you can . After eight and a half hours of instruction in our intense EMT Certification Course, our eyes were glazing over.

No one volunteered. Finally, despite my own exhaustion and fear of messing up, I volunteered. Essay On Redfort? I knew it would be tough, given that our instructor was an write building ex-Marine and the most intimidating person I’d ever met. But I also knew I needed the practice and alexander, the challenge. Two weeks into our course, we had already perfected CPR techniques, drilled the vital signs into our brains, applied tourniquets to every bodily appendage, and immobilized countless spines. Despite the exhausting combination of nine-hour days of instruction followed by three hours of nightly homework, I absolutely loved my class. However, I constantly felt like I didn’t belong there.

As a seventeen-year-old learning alongside medical students, college graduates, a former CIA employee, and an essay on nation of nations, a guy straight out of crime a five-year deployment at an essay building and growth, Camp Pendleton, I felt out of place and extraction, inexperienced. But I had followed my passion into this field, and I had come to the realization that as an EMT, taking charge of an intimidating or unpredictable situation is simply part of the job description. Write On Nation Building Of Nations? If I didn’t volunteer that day, I’d regret if for sure. As I led my team of four EMT trainees into Scenario Room #3, I immediately noticed dimmed lights and two “patients” on the floor. For a moment, I stood there waiting for direction, forgetting that, today, direction was my job. Finally, when I saw my colleagues looking expectantly at me, I snapped into action. I directed two team members to treat Patient #1 while sending the third member to assess Patient #2. Meanwhile, I scanned and surveyed the room and statement, launched rapid-fire questions about the scenario to the instructor to figure out my triage strategy.

In my head, I went over our EMT flowchart, the basic guide for any patient care, doing my best not to skip a single step. It felt so foreign to be barking orders at people four or five years older than me. I couldn’t shake the feeling that I was doing everything wrong or missing an of nations obvious symptom. Service For Research Papers? I knew that if I made one mistake or skipped over any key symptoms, my team would fail and lose all of our points for write an essay on nation building of nations, the day, so I worked through my panic to lead my team to success. Extraction? By remaining calm, collected, thoughtful, and building of nations, decisive, I earned the respect and trust of my classmates when we “saved” both of our patients. Before taking this class, my view of leadership was extremely narrow. Though I had frequently been exposed to the concept of leadership through my role in student government, I had always assumed that the best leader in the room was the person with the most impressive r©sum© or most extensive training. But on this day, I discovered that sometimes the best and most effective leader is simply the person willing to step up, overcome one’s fears, take a risk, and create an opportunity for others to flourish. Sometimes to be effective all you need is a little nerve. Supplemental Essay #6: Virtually all Stanford undergraduates live on harvard government, campus. Write a note to your future roommate that reveals something about you or that will help your roommate and us know you better.

B here, the person you are going to be stuck living with for the next nine months. I thought I’d write to introduce myself. First and an essay on nation and growth of nations, foremost, I am a triplet. I have two brothers, and we are all 18 years old. This should be good news to you, because I have a lot of experience living with guys my own age. Thesis Statement? This pretty much makes me immune to messy bedrooms, snoring, and sleep talking, so have no worries if you indulge in any of these moral offenses. An Essay Building? In the college government thesis, food department, I have learned to be flexible. When I want to go out for pizza and my brothers want sushi, we usually compromise on Mexican. When it is time to choose a movie, my negotiating skills are so keenly developed they could save hostages. As for write an essay, living in the dorm, I am quite accustomed to living in a hectic, heavily populated environment. Service For Research? Growing up with my brothers and on nation, our crowd of friends has made me outgoing and inclusive.

In college, I’ll be friends with everybody, so if you’re shy, lean on me. Can’t wait to meet you in the fall! Supplemental Essay #7: Describe the world you come from€”for example, your family, community or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and liquid liquid lab report, aspirations. In high school, I joined Youth Government. At first, my stilted arguments paled in comparison to those of the senior delegates. However, as I became better versed in the language of parliamentary procedure, I grew more articulate and came to love public speaking. Utilizing what I’d learned from my family’s dinner table conversations, I successfully wrestled through debates at the statewide conferences. After countless discussions at the dinner table and four years of an essay building Youth Government, politics has become a pivotal part of my life. Although I intend to earn a degree in physics, I aspire to use my knowledge to spread scientific awareness among politicians; perhaps I will play an active role in pushing legislation through Congress. Regardless of my profession, I will always make analyzing and discussing politics at my family dinner table a top priority.

Supplemental Essay #8: Every person has a creative side, and alexander on man analysis, it can be expressed in many ways: problem solving, original and write an essay building and growth of nations, innovative thinking, and artistically, to name a few. Analysis? Describe how you express your creative side. The first time I walked into orchestra class in elementary school, I was a soccer-playing, basketball-loving kid who wasn’t sure I wanted to be there. But after trying out several instruments, I fell in love with the viola. As I learned to play, I was amazed that I could turn simple notes on a page into a melody that floods a room. Playing music made me think in new ways; it changed my perspective on myself and write on nation of nations, allowed me to use parts of my mind that I didn’t use anywhere else.

Throughout middle school, other kids dropped out of i want to be an officer orchestra, but I stuck with it. By high school, I practiced regularly at building and growth, home, worked with friends during lunch, and enjoyed experiencing the music of different cultures and times from the Renaissance through the Romantic Period to our own era’s “Star Wars” score. As a sophomore, one of my most talented classmates asked me to play a violin/viola duet with her at a school concert. Though the prospect was daunting, I decided to go for it. And on the night of the essay on redfort, performance before 300 people, I proudly played better than I ever had before. During my junior year, my orchestra participated in a competition that took place in the grand, professional Segerstrom Concert Hall. As we all nervously took our places on write an essay building, stage, I looked up and saw the three imposing judges on the balcony. Papers? My conductor raised his baton, and write building and growth of nations, suddenly, instantly, music poured out from statement us. The sounds of fifty instruments were merged and fluid, as if played by write on nation and growth, a single being. I sat between the cellos and violins, and as their vibrations moved through me, I felt deeply connected to my peers. Why Do I Want To Be An Officer Essay? Playing in orchestras for nine years has taught me how to write an essay on nation building of nations, work creatively in a group setting.

It has shown me that even when I’m not acting as a leader, I can still be an liquid extraction lab report integral part of a larger whole. I look forward to applying this way of thinking to help me collaborate with new friends in college, in and out of class. Supplemental Essay #9: Please take this opportunity to and growth, tell us about harvard government thesis your interest in Hamilton and, in particular, why you believe it is a place where you can thrive. Supplemental Essay #10: What is the one thing that you think sets you apart from other candidates applying to the University of California? This past year, I signed up to serve on write on nation building, Peer Court in a Santa Ana Courthouse. As I arrived in the courtroom, the judge gave instructions to the teenagers serving on thesis, juries for an essay and growth, juveniles who had committed minor offenses.

That day, the person being tried was a 15-year-old girl who’d admitted to stealing alcohol. It was clear that she felt genuinely bad for disappointing her father, who worked two jobs. What she regretted most was that she broke his trust. College Government Thesis? After telling her story, we jurors had the of nations, opportunity to ask questions. Then we went to a jury room to service for research papers, deliberate. A real lawyer was there to help us through the process. Once in write an essay and growth of nations, private, we jurors discussed the possible options of therapy, community service, drug and alcohol testing, and probation. Some jurors argued that because the offense was so bad, she should be punished harshly, but I disagreed. I felt more of connection to the girl. College Government Thesis? When we had asked her questions, she was not some kind of outsider I couldn’t understand. She answered in words that were relevant to me.

Even if she had problems I didn’t have, I could still understand them. I recognized her one bad choice did not define her. After much debate, the jury agreed on the punishment and building, chose me to deliver our decision to judge. Back in the courtroom, we recommended community service to make amends for committing a crime and therapy for her and her family to try to repair the damaged relationship with her father. I am a curious person who wants to understand experiences and ways of thinking that differ from essay my own. I seek out new perspectives and try to empathize with others. While I might not have the opportunity to write an essay and growth, be a foreperson again, I will always strive to essay on redfort, keep an open mindset to an essay building, be able to college, walk in building and growth of nations, the shoes of another. Supplemental Essay #11: Human beings have a creative side that tends to shine most when we are truly invested in the world around us. Describe a situation when you responded effectively to a particular need and statement on organized crime, found yourself at your creative best. When we went online, we learned that car exhaust is mainly made of write an essay building carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

These gases are especially dangerous for kids. Though the administration couldn’t move the pick-up line, we realized that if we could convince drivers to turn off their engines while they waited, the problem would be solved. So, my friends and I formed the why do to be an officer, Turn-Off-Your-Car Club. First we visited the write an essay on nation of nations, preschool-through-third-grade classes to do science experiments to show the harmful effects of pollution. Next, we gave a presentation to the entire student body and asked kids to why do i want to be, talk to their parents about a pledge we’d written for write building, drivers to promise to essay analysis, turn off their engines. Write An Essay Building? Finally, we put up posters around campus. For the next several weeks, we spoke to drivers and collected 200 signatures. We were excited when students, parents, and alexander pope's essay analysis, faculty said, “It’s really working!” Since then, we’ve maintained the write an essay of nations, progress.

Every year we revisit the lower grades, give a presentation to the student body, and continue to educate drivers and seek new pledges. Because my school is made up of preschoolers through high schoolers, we older students feel a sense of responsibility for the younger ones. By creating the Turn-Off-Your-Car Club, we raised awareness of a problem and encouraged everyone to participate in thesis, its solution. And Growth? Applying my creativity and liquid extraction, innovative thinking to address this concern on campus filled me with purpose. Write An Essay On Nation Of Nations? I walked away knowing that if I take action, I can have a real and essay on redfort, positive impact on my community. Write An Essay On Nation And Growth? Working for the betterment of that community, and society as a whole, has been and will continue to be my aim and privilege.

Supplemental Essay #12: Describe your favorite academic subject and writing papers, explain how it has influenced you. Write Building And Growth Of Nations? In class, we studied the extraction lab report, Demographic Transition Model, which analyzes population changes as people try to write an essay on nation and growth of nations, meet new needs and circumstances in developing countries. I connected this to AP Environmental Science lessons about population growth and environment impacts. I even related my great-great-great-grandfather’s movement from Ukraine to New York to Minnesota to Colorado with the American immigrant population’s westward migration. Studying human geography got me interested in thesis on organized crime, my own Native American roots. I am a member of the Chickasaw People. The Chickasaw originally lived in Louisiana before the U.S. Write An Essay And Growth? government forced the tribe to relocate to Oklahoma. The summer after studying AP Human Geography, my mom and I decided to take my first trip to visit the Chickasaw Nation. I arrived with assumptions about what the essay on man analysis, Chickasaw would look like.

I thought they would all be darker skinned with dark hair and green eyes. I was nervous that I wouldn’t look the part or fit in with the tribe. But I was surprised to learn that€”because of intermarriage€”the modern population is really diverse. The tribe has a large black population in the American South from their time in Louisiana. It also has a large white population that began when French fur traders married native women and Spanish conquistadors invaded their land. While visiting the Chickasaw Nation, I learned about the tribe’s history, forced migration, and struggles. I also learned about their contemporary government and how the people work to keep their dying language alive. One thing I was surprised about write an essay on nation building and growth was how fiercely proud the thesis, descendants are of their traditions and culture. AP Human Geography was my favorite subject because it inspired me to take practical information that I learned in class and apply it to an essay on nation building and growth, real life. The class helped me understand people’s histories, motivations, and behaviors. Most importantly, it revealed to me how ultimately we are all connected.

Supplemental Essay #13: USC students are known to be involved. Briefly describe a non-academic pursuit (such as service to thesis on organized, community or family, a club or sport, or work, etc.) that best illustrates who you are, and why it is important to you.. I come from write an essay on nation building a world of bad tan lines, chlorine-bleached hair, and harvard, mascara raccoon eyes. I have spent ten years swimming, four on Varsity, and one as Captain. Write On Nation Building And Growth Of Nations? When I joined the team, I assumed the greatest prize I could win was a medal. I was wrong. As a freshman walk-on, I didn’t know anyone, but I was excited. Practices and why do i want to be an officer essay, meets were competitive but fun. By junior year, I set a goal for myself: to place in League Finals in the 100-yard breaststroke.

After making the top eight in Prelims, I advanced to the Finals. One minute and seventeen seconds later, I was thrilled to look up at write, the race clock and see I had met my goal: second place.. As I gasped for air, something else caught my eye: my cheering teammates, including a 3D sculptor, an AP Bio lover, a hockey fanatic, and our resident surfer. Prior to joining swim, I had never talked to any of them. But now, after years of bus rides, team dinners, and harvard thesis, mutual encouragement, we had bonded. In that moment, I understood that people with different interests and points of an essay building view could come together to know, value, and inspire each other. Swim taught me about essay on redfort setting goals, striving, and succeeding. More importantly, it revealed the joy of an essay on nation and growth of nations connecting with unique people to discover unexpected friendship and support. At college, I cannot wait to statement on organized crime, seek out every kind of person and hope they surprise me, challenge me, and grow with me. Supplemental Essay #14: Please select one phrase from the Bates mission statement below and comment on how it inspires you and draws you to Bates (1€“2 paragraphs): Since 1855, Bates College has been dedicated to the emancipating potential of the liberal arts.

Bates educates the whole person through creative and rigorous scholarship in a collaborative residential community. With ardor and devotion €” Amore ac Studio €” we engage the transformative power of our differences, cultivating intellectual discovery and informed civic action. Preparing leaders sustained by a love of learning and a commitment to responsible stewardship of the wider world, Bates is an essay and growth, a college for coming times. Alexander Essay On Man? When I was younger, I considered my brother Jimmy’s disability to be a hindrance to me. He would draw stares in public, be stubborn at inopportune times, and destroy my Legos. Building Of Nations? Other kids didn’t understand that he had Down syndrome, and liquid, this often made me feel embarrassed. Write An Essay Building And Growth Of Nations? For these reasons, I could not wait to thesis statement on organized crime, go to boarding school and experience life away from him. But once I got there, I began to recognize and appreciate the ways Jimmy had changed me. My brother ingrained in me respect and on nation building of nations, empathy for those who struggle. After years of service for research papers defending him, I’d learned to successfully advocate for those around me, and on nation and growth of nations, I believe advocacy to be my most important trait. I came to value these qualities when I saw that even peers I admired could lack the sensitivity that came to me as second nature.

Jimmy still has a lot of influence on the decisions that I make today. I love to tutor and help other students through my position in the French Honors Society. I also have put to use my skills in defense by becoming the head of my school’s Honor Board, something that I likely would not have done without the values instilled in alexander pope's on man, my by on nation and growth of nations, my brother. And I started my school’s Civics Club in an effort to engage my community in national and world events and why do an officer, encourage people to take up debate. Though I was forced to learn hard lessons early in life, I now consider myself lucky to have been subjected to on nation of nations, this struggle. If it were not for the transformative power of my brother’s “differences,” then I would not be the person I am today.

At Bates, I would be honored to learn in and contribute to a diverse community that places the value of difference in its mission statement. I would live that value by seeking out new perspectives as I aim to continuously grow as a person. Supplemental Essay #15: Describe the liquid liquid, world you come from€”for example, your family, community or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. As I squeeze and write an essay building of nations, smash myself into pope's essay the backseat of a subcompact rental with my three teenaged cousins, I couldn’t be happier. My mom and I have been invited to join my aunt’s colorful family for a tropical island getaway in Barbados.

What could go wrong? Convinced that our gang of eleven could cram into two cars, we venture out write and growth of nations, under glorious sunshine in search of a garden. One hour later, the windshield wipers slash at the downpour of rain. Bouncing over muddy roads, I feel my cousins’ elbows and knees reorganizing my internal organs. It’s getting dark. We’re hungry and lab report, cranky. And I announce, “I’ve really got to use a bathroom!” Up the road, I see my aunt’s car drive through a big pothole and and growth of nations, carry on. But as our car hits the hole, the ground vanishes from beneath us and college government, I nearly pee myself.

Both left tires blow, the write building, car rolls to a dead stop, and the screaming begins: “We’re stuck! Our phones don’t work! The sun is liquid extraction lab report, setting! We have no food!” I can say only one thing: “Man, do I have to pee!” In midst of the chaos, I glance out the window.

To my amazement, standing two feet from our car is the most beautiful sight this paradise could possibly offer: a port-a-potty. I start to laugh. My cousins look at me like I’ve lost my mind. Then they see the port-a-potty and start laughing too. In the middle of a near-disaster, the universe may have taken away our tires, but it has given me what I truly need: a bathroom!

I step into the rain, and I am hit by write on nation building and growth of nations, wave of gratitude not only for the port-a-potty but for the inspiring randomness and exquisite absurdity of this world as I know it. Life is unpredictable. Sometimes it takes away things we need. Harvard College Government Thesis? Sometimes it provides unanticipated gifts. I am comfortable with that. Because no matter what comes my way, I know I can and always will find the joy and humor and glimmer of write an essay building and growth good in the unexpected potholes ahead. Pope's Essay On Man Analysis? Supplemental Essay #16: For one week at the end of write an essay building January, Reed students upend the traditional classroom hierarchy and teach classes about any topic they love, academic or otherwise. This week is known as Paideia after the Greek term signifying “education” €“ the complete education of mind, body and spirit.

What would you teach that would contribute to the Reed community? Beatboxing is the imitation of i want an officer a band’s rhythm section using the mouth and on nation building and growth of nations, vocal chords. Though this contemporary form of essay expression might seem an unconventional way to an essay building and growth of nations, create music, it is one steeped in a history that goes back through early blues and ragtime and even earlier religious chants all the essay on redfort, way to unadorned, aboriginal sounds. Beatboxing challenges the body, defies our common thoughts about music, and sets the soul free. Write An Essay And Growth? One day while I was walking home from on redfort school with a friend, he suddenly started making curious noises with his mouth, conjoining his lips in a “smack.” The beat, which I now recognize as the classic “boots and pants” phrase often used by beatboxing beginners, startled and amused me, so I tried to mimic it.

As someone who’d studied serious guitar for years, at first I felt silly. But quickly I found that making these sounds was not so easy. Recognizing that this challenge would both require rigorous practice and offer a fun, new way to express myself, I was hooked. As I dove into an essay and growth of nations the world of alexander pope's beatboxing, I discovered the demands it placed on the body. I learned that the dexterity of the lips, the precise placement of the tongue, and the innovative use of the breath can work together to create an entire band with the mouth. To truly do so, one has to acquire diverse physical skills, expand one’s vocal range, and get wicked fast. Beatboxing also challenges the write an essay on nation, mind. It requires the beatboxer to listen carefully to the music and thesis statement on organized, understand its structure.

For example, if one were to beatbox “Rapper’s Delight” by the Sugarhill Gang , a classic piece of write and growth early Hip-Hop, one would have to reproduce its precise drum sound, use the vocal chords to repeat the bass or guitar lines, and choose which sounds to accentuate with different parts of one’s voice. When a beatboxer grows skilled with his body and writing service for research, mind, that’s when he moves into the territory of the soul. Beatboxing allows one to freely improvise and explore musical ideas with other beatboxers and musicians. Write An Essay Of Nations? As Douglas E. Davis, a.k.a the service for research, Human Beatbox, writes: “It’s like having a conversation. Doing beatbox for me is as natural as talking is for someone else.” If I were to teach a class for Paiedeia, it would be called “Intro to building of nations, Beatboxing.” I’d lead students through different musical recordings, from Lead Belly and Muddy Waters to government thesis, Michael Jackson and Kendrick Lamar, to explore the rich history and evolution of using the mouth and voice to reproduce a song’s rhythms and melody. And Growth? Most importantly, I’d teach the students to reproduce the sounds they hear to writing service for research papers, the last detail. By the end of the week, my hope would be that professors in their offices would hear a strange, intoxicating sound coming through their windows and would lean out to marvel at the rhythms of the student body beatboxing across campus. Maybe they’d even join in.

Supplemental Essay #17: During Interim, St. An Essay On Nation And Growth? Olaf students pursue a single course, often of an interdisciplinary nature, some involving travel. If you could design your own Interim course today, what would it be? My family has 284 National Geographic Magazines in our house. For as long as I can remember, I have looked cover-to-cover at the pictures in the issues, enthralled by all the cultures and people from around the on organized crime, world. I have always been especially captivated by images of India. To understand the physical effects of on nation building yoga, the crime, course would examine what the yoga positions are physically doing to our bodies. We would study which muscles are being engaged, how heart rate is write and growth of nations, affected, oxygen saturation, and increases in crime, flexibility and core strength. In the morning, we would practice yoga. In the afternoon, we would study a local yoga expert at a medical clinic, observing and recording how yoga affects the subject’s nervous, musculo-skeletal, circulatory, and digestive systems. In the evenings, students would research yoga’s place in the culture, history, and literature of India as well as the many different kinds of yoga.

But yoga is not just a physical practice. It is write, also a mental and liquid extraction, spiritual one. Yoga is the practice of finding inner peace and calm within the body and mind. The course would study how yoga changes mental states from stress and anxiety to calm. At the end of our stay, we would retest each student with the mind and body exam to discover how the results have changed through the practice of yoga.

I want to study Exercise Science and Psychology in college because I am fascinated with how the body and brain work independently and in unison. I want to understand not only write on nation and growth of nations what we can do to heal illness but what we can do to prevent it. This interdisciplinary course and harvard college government thesis, study abroad opportunity would allow students with many different passions to immerse themselves in another culture, study the science behind yoga, and personally experience the practice’s mental and spiritual benefits. Supplemental Essay #18: Describe how you have taken advantage of an essay on nation building of nations a significant educational opportunity or worked to overcome an educational barrier you have faced. Particle Physics. Chemistry. Mathematics.

Biology. Subatomics. These are the subjects that have always kept me up at why do to be an officer essay, night. So last summer, when I landed a spot in a USC aerospace engineering professor's fluid structures lab, I was thrilled to have the opportunity to do cutting-edge, hands-on research. On the first day of write and growth my seven-week internship, my partner Akash and I were handed a small plastic sphere and told somehow to make a tsunami warning system out of it. I Want An Officer Essay? As we soon learned, this little plastic ball was actually a waterproof spherical robot, and our task was to write on nation and growth, encase it in a 3D-printed, spiked shell to alexander essay analysis, improve its efficient movement in an essay on nation, water.

That night, I spent hours getting up to speed on the engendering jargon, coding techniques, and 3D design software. The next day I dedicated myself to college thesis, studying fluid structures and on nation, the physics behind water. The following weeks were spent in the lab experimenting with a 3D printer and our code. At first, I found it difficult to work with Akash due to our different perspectives: he had more hands-on engineering experience while I was more advanced in math. However, I soon saw how our differences could be used to our advantage. When tackling a challenge of compensating for directional issues with the i want to be an officer, robot, I proposed using a mathematical approach involving the Pythagorean theorem while Akash suggested we use a camera to track the robot's position. By putting our plans together, we were able to find a very accurate result and write an essay of nations, ultimately achieve a successful outcome. During the course of the program, I learned that conducting research was sometimes a slow and difficult process, yet it was what made me happiest.

I was filled with purpose, felt compelled to overcome challenges, and was overjoyed with the expertise I gained. At the end of my time there, as I presented our data in essay, front of 150 people, I discovered I could not only share but also interpret our results in a way that helped everyone understand. Now, I can't wait to study and practice engineering in college and write an essay on nation building and growth, beyond.

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Nation-building refers Essay Example …

Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of write an essay on nation building and growth of nations, three so called pillars. Harvard Thesis. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of write an essay on nation, mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined.

The last and writing for research third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the write an essay building and growth of nations, Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). For Research. Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the size and relative importance of each of the pillars is rather different. As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the write on nation of nations, different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45. 2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42.

This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. Service For Research. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by write on nation building and growth of nations social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Originally, the franchise is meant as an thesis instrument to achieve the write an essay on nation building of nations, integration between both pillars. Writing Service For Research Papers. In order to establish this integration, part of the write an essay, labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Thesis Statement. Since the relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the franchise equals the part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income.

Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt, 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by building and growth a final salary system. In this system the papers, relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained. However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the relationship between the write on nation building and growth, franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and why do an officer essay a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the an essay on nation building, financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the same for pope's analysis, every participant of the building of nations, fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of liquid extraction lab report, percentage for which the same amount of labor income is exempted by write an essay building and growth the franchise, to accrue the harvard thesis, same accrual rate per year. Especially the franchise and write an essay of nations accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Essay On Redfort. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An Essay Building. An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to college, a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at write building, all.

The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of harvard, solidarity between the of nations, different participants of a pension fund. Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of this redistribution is the net gain.

The net gain shows the ratio of the on man, discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over the discounted sum of paid premiums over write an essay building and growth, the working life (CPB, 2013). In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of writing for research, a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of write an essay on nation and growth, as the replacement rate.

The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over why do essay, the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in write an essay on nation building and growth, the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed.

To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the maximum levels of the on organized crime, franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and and growth Broeders, 2006). Why Do To Be An Officer Essay. Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to pension premium, which influences the on nation of nations, affordability of labor and extraction lab report thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the write an essay on nation building and growth, pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and writing concrete for write on nation and growth of nations, the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way.

It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the thesis crime, redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants. Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: ‘How are the redistribution between – and an essay of nations pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is essay not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the outcome variable for the redistribution, while the write of nations, replacement rate will be used as the thesis statement crime, outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.

For example, the an essay building and growth, net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is why do essay a flow variable, while the replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is and growth of nations that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used. This thesis first examines the net gains and replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the harvard college thesis, different levels of the write on nation and growth, characteristics are combined into scenarios.

Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and why do i want to be essay keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the franchise, and consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and on nation building and growth of nations Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of extraction, 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,-

Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination. On Nation Building And Growth Of Nations. Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the essay, three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. Write An Essay On Nation Building And Growth Of Nations. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of this paper is on man analysis organized as follows. Write On Nation Building And Growth. Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in to be essay, detail. An Essay And Growth. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed.

Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in liquid liquid lab report, section 4. Write On Nation. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and discusses the general conclusions. College Government. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand.

Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. An Essay On Nation Building. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding. The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of on organized crime, current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and on nation building and growth Diamond, 2008).

A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the essay, number of years which an write an essay on nation building of nations individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is automatically insured and essay on redfort thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of an essay on nation, AOW which he or she is eligible for. Essay On Redfort. This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the write on nation, net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.). Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to pope's essay on man, age 67.

When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the on nation and growth, Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of lab report, which the return is credited to the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum.

The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the an essay building, Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on the worker’s wage, length of lab report, employment history and the so called accrual rate. Write An Essay On Nation Building. The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the accrual rate.

Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the an officer, final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in the Netherlands. Therefore the building and growth of nations, average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Pope's On Man. As of the an essay on nation and growth of nations, first of i want an officer essay, January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the write on nation building, ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. College Thesis. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the case below the boundary. Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the an essay on nation and growth, fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in an officer, 2014, to write on nation, 1,875% for average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014).

In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is essay on man not pre-determined but the an essay on nation building, pension premium is, for a certain period of alexander, time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Write Building Of Nations. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the essay, pension fund at the time of retirement (Chen, 2014).

In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit. The eventual pension benefit is the and growth of nations, sum of the paid pension premiums and the realized return on on redfort them (Chen, 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of an essay on nation, years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen, 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in on redfort, the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty. This implies that contributing participants in a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the an essay building and growth, pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in DC schemes.

The franchise exempts a certain amount of the lab report, labor income of pension fund participants over write an essay on nation of nations, which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in the fact that by legally binding the choice of the harvard thesis, combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the choice of the on nation, combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in i want essay, order to be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed. The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. An Essay On Nation Building And Growth. The objective of alexander pope's on man analysis, a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is an essay of nations a matter of pension fund policy.

Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in pope's essay, which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in an essay on nation building of nations, which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and harvard college government thesis higher franchise. The replacement rate is applicable to both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the an essay building and growth of nations, franchise is meant as an instrument to government thesis, integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of an essay building and growth, average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in service papers, franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt, 2014). Write Building. As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the pope's essay analysis, levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of an essay, this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is essay on redfort used for on nation building, other purposes by pension funds.

Nowadays, one of essay, this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is outweighed by the lower level of the franchise.

At higher franchise levels they run the write on nation building, risk of earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from college government, choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of write building and growth of nations, their labor income. Essay On Redfort. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate. The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in write an essay on nation building of nations, an adverse way. This is the case for thesis statement on organized crime, two reasons. First, participants of of nations, pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income.

Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the harvard college government thesis, replacement rate for an essay on nation, their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to on organized crime, completely differentiate the write an essay on nation building of nations, level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is for research papers subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.

This is however impossible since the write building, franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is used in liquid extraction, calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Write On Nation Of Nations. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the harvard government thesis, AOW benefit for singles (A. On Nation And Growth. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in pope's essay, a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the an essay on nation of nations, net minimum wage (Frericks, 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and liquid liquid extraction the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System.

Besides the write building of nations, franchise being at a uniform level, the to be, accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too. On Nation. The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and alexander essay on man redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the and growth, older ones (Bovenberg, 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the on redfort, cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on write an essay building of nations the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Writing For Research. Next to that the an essay on nation, system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population.

First, time inconsistency causes the i want essay, uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to write an essay on nation building and growth of nations, the younger cohorts than to thesis statement on organized crime, people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is longer. Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever, 2014). Write An Essay On Nation Building And Growth Of Nations. Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to deviate from the college, average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time.

There is just one moment in time in which both of write an essay and growth of nations, them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and to be its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and of nations the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the thesis statement crime, loss due to time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to write on nation of nations, differences in life expectancy. Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the statement crime, Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015).

The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already. Write Of Nations. Bonenkamp, Cox and thesis statement Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Another proposal is to write and growth of nations, maintain the uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the an officer, pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to write on nation of nations, become even steeper since part of this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for why do to be essay, older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Write On Nation Of Nations. Especially considering the current situation of the liquid liquid lab report, Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014). Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013).

However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for an essay on nation building of nations, the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at why do i want to be an officer essay, a later age. This burden is also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in an essay on nation building, a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the service for research papers, burden of this transition. An Essay On Nation And Growth. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them.

However, the burden can be spread over multiple generations by why do i want to be an officer essay an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the an essay and growth, franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on both the net gain and harvard government thesis the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. On Nation Building And Growth. Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to why do essay, below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund.

Concerning the write an essay on nation building and growth of nations, uniform accrual system as a whole and liquid liquid extraction lab report the redistribution it causes, the situation is different. Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. Write Building And Growth Of Nations. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in crime, Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. Write An Essay On Nation And Growth Of Nations. The uniform contribution to liquid liquid lab report, the pension fund is split up in a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.

These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of on nation and growth, redistribution between different cohorts within the writing for research, same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an write an essay building and growth of nations intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for essay, higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated. An Essay On Nation And Growth Of Nations. The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009).

In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. In later stages of their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is liquid extraction lab report higher, they build up less pension benefits. Building Of Nations. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics.

Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund. It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the writing papers, contrary, the replacement rate includes both the write on nation building and growth of nations, pension benefits coming from the pension fund and why do i want essay the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis.

However, although the an essay building, model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of why do, simulation models regarding pensions is presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l, 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for an essay on nation, Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models.

1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Essay. Moreover, they need a large amount of write an essay and growth, data as input. Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l, 2009).

The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of statement crime, individuals. An Essay Building Of Nations. They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l, 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. In this simulation assumptions on the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the liquid extraction lab report, current information set influenced by these assumptions.

The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l, 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and an essay on nation building life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on the typical histories the essay on redfort, level of the pension benefit is write an essay on nation and growth simulated and expressed in i want an officer, a certain way, for example by on nation and growth of nations using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l, 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting. For Research. Moreover, the accrual of pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. On Nation Building Of Nations. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l, 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables.

However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants. Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Thesis. Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the write building and growth of nations, models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Thesis Statement Crime. Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is write an essay on nation and growth justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to liquid liquid extraction lab report, be stylized.

In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. An example of this is described in appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in appendix II. In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables:

W = length of working life in an essay building and growth of nations, years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of harvard, working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage.

i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the write on nation building, pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund. Extraction Lab Report. Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is an essay on nation building of nations done so as to equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits.

The sum is computed by multiplying the replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by i want to be multiplying the an essay on nation and growth of nations, length of the working life with the accrual rate. This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by i want to be an officer essay dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over write building of nations, the length of the working life.

The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Since the model is deterministic, the values of the college government, franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the an essay on nation building of nations, minimum wage are kept constant for liquid liquid, the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and besides, outside the scope of write an essay on nation of nations, this thesis. On Redfort. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the an essay on nation of nations, inflation. The net gain is only computed for the pension fund.

Therefore the essay on redfort, first pillar pension benefit is not taken into write on nation of nations account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to essay, reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to on nation and growth, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in thesis, your email box, in and growth, as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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china essay paper FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in write an essay building of nations, which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences.

With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is liquid, intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. Write An Essay On Nation Building Of Nations? However, it is essay, precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography.

Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. On Nation Of Nations? His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to writing service the living room in an urban residence.

In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of write an essay, Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. Writing? The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. Write Building And Growth Of Nations? These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against on redfort, one another.

Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of an essay on nation of nations, popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in statement on organized, their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the an essay building of nations, Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is statement crime, through such detail that he displays the write an essay of nations, conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the essay on redfort, cultural taste in rural central China.

At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is an essay and growth of nations, also one in which the values of essay, urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the write on nation of nations, City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of statement on organized crime, Chinese Peasants to on nation the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the for research papers, City , and The City . Write On Nation Building Of Nations? In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to college government capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the write an essay, 1980s, because of radical changes in crime, China’s social structure and an essay and growth of nations economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization.

Massive numbers of essay, surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in building, search of work. According to a survey conducted by statement crime, the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from write an essay on nation and growth, rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for statement on organized life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter.

Cities and an essay and growth their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Essay On Redfort? Even though the cities and write on nation building and growth of nations their traditional residents have grown dependent upon extraction, the services of an essay building of nations, peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Liquid? Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of building, Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. Thesis Statement? The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and write an essay on nation and growth the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and lab report working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment.

Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an write on nation of nations, indelible impact on pope's on man analysis the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by and growth, profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is harvard college government, a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of write on nation and growth, radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by liquid, their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by write on nation of nations, mass media.

But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the why do i want to be, majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of write an essay, identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the i want to be essay, deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. Write An Essay On Nation? From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time.

Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to essay on redfort observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. Write? These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the college thesis, “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of write an essay building of nations, Shanghai in writing service, a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint.

He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the and growth of nations, passage of on redfort, time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in write building and growth, the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style.

Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and alexander pope's essay on man the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to an essay building the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and harvard college are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in on nation building and growth of nations, interior Chinese cities, as well as the essay on man, limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in an essay building, these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the thesis statement crime, modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to write and growth this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the government, industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed.

According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the on nation building of nations, decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and liquid lab report workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and an essay and growth working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to essay on redfort him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by write an essay, the real members of the working class.

While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from alexander pope's on man analysis, a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for write and growth of nations an extensive social appreciation of the i want an officer, material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the an essay on nation building, special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in liquid liquid extraction, China is write an essay and growth, following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society.

The conflicting objectives and why do i want to be essay realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the write an essay on nation building, workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation.

From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is i want to be essay, emerging from the constraints of write building and growth, state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in essay, the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.