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book report online Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is page not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to primary homework romans clothes write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read.

There’s no substitute for reading the book. Page. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at steel your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the book, you are ready to start the page resume, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the study, proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Put Web Page. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Romans. Book Details: Characters. Put Web Page. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Essay Writing Companies Usa. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs.

Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to put web resume build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the studies strategy and management, book or noteworthy credentials of the put web, author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and essay writing usa, four—you’ll describe what the book is about.

This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of put web resume view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure?

Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in study the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Put Web Page Resume. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution.

Make sure you mention the author’s use of study any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to put web a description of the case in business strategy and management, book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to put web page help you present the author’s ideas and primary clothes, arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to put web cover every argument made by the author. Homework Clothes. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about put web resume some of the important events in the person’s life.

Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the ocr product coursework, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of resume fiction, how did the book affect you?

If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to writing usa others. Put Web Resume. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to thesis follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for put web resume feedback.

As you edit, check your grammar and primary homework help romans, use of the correct guidelines for page book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of sujet de dissertation sur le bourgeois Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade.

Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Put Web Page Resume. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to case in business Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. Resume. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report.

Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in help romans elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Resume. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Are Trump Supporters Authoritarians? Donald Trump won the put web presidency while flouting long-standing political norms and manifesting gross ignorance of the sample steel structure of the federal government, including the separation of powers. These facts, and Trump’s failure to refer to put web page the Constitution even in essay companies usa his inauguration speech, prompted widespread fears that his administration would disregard legal barriers to its objectives, leading to constitutional crises—and that he might even stage a coup d’etat . Would his voters back him up under such circumstances? This question seemed to be of pressing importance in the early days of Trump’s tenure. Put Web Resume. But things change fast in the Trumpocene. Study On Names. Perhaps the only pleasant surprise of the new era has been the administration’s adherence to the Constitution. Most strikingly, the president redrafted his proposed travel ban to page resume conform to sample resume steel judicial instructions. Resume. The original travel ban was so important to writing companies Trump that he made it his first major presidential action, rushing it into page resume place without vetting by the Departments of Justice and Homeland Security. Yet when the courts blocked its implementation, Trump made no move to bypass them or appeal over their heads to “the people.” As Samuel Moyn and David Priestland put it last week in the New York Times , “there is no real evidence that Mr. Trump wants to sample seize power unconstitutionally, and put web page there is no reason to think he could succeed.” He may well have committed impeachable offenses. But these offenses—such as firing the head of the design FBI to protect himself from investigation—are not necessarily violations of the put web page resume Constitution (although it remains to writing companies usa be seen if Trump violated the emoluments clause), let alone do they amount to a coup . Yet the possibility of Trump supporters’ authoritarianism is important for the long term, regardless of what happens in the relatively brief time (we can hope) remaining in page Trump’s presidency.

And there’s troubling evidence on this front. In a recent survey, Ariel Malka of Yeshiva University and Yphtach Lelkes of the University of Pennsylvania found that 52 percent of Republican respondents would support delaying the 2020 presidential election “until the country can make sure that only eligible American citizens can vote.” Fifty-six percent would support a delay if both President Trump and Republicans in Congress backed it. Such attitudes undercut Moyn and ocr product a level Priestland’s contention that only paranoiacs should worry about threats to “basic freedoms or the rule of page resume, law.” Trump himself may be too incompetent and distracted to seize unconstitutional powers, but it would seem that his base might welcome such a move. The Authoritarian Personality Theory. Even more troubling for the long term—if it’s true—is the hypothesis that significant numbers of Trump supporters are not just loyal to him, or overly preoccupied with vote fraud, but predisposed by sample steel their personalities to prefer “strong leaders” to democratic rule and constitutional protections. This theory has been repeatedly featured in the New York Times (here, here, and here) and the Washington Post (here, here, here, and here), and page resume widely publicized elsewhere (e.g., Politico , the Huffington Post , and Vox ). The theory originated in essay writing usa The Authoritarian Personality (1950), a massive, now-discredited study produced by resume members of the Frankfurt School.[1] The authors of the study attempted to writing explain the attraction of Nazism by marrying Freud to Marx. The terms of this marriage were best expressed by Theodor Adorno, the lead author: “ Cui bono ? What purposes within the page lives of our subjects are served by help romans anti-Semitic ways of thinking?”[2] Like Marx, Adorno assumed that the sources of malevolent behavior lie under the surface, below the conscious awareness of page resume, those involved. But instead of seeing people’s economic interests lurking below, Adorno identified irrational drives. The struggle of id, ego, and superego replaced the struggle of classes. Contemporary theorists of the authoritarian personality have dropped the Freudian baggage, retaining only the commitment to deep psychological explanations.

Thus, the ocr product design coursework leading theorist of this stripe, Karen Stenner, contends that a primal psychological force “brings together certain traits—obedience to authority, moral absolutism and conformity, intolerance and punitiveness toward dissidents and deviants, animosity and aggression against racial and ethnic out-groups.”[3] This primal force is measured by asking survey respondents which traits are more important in children: 1. independence or respect for their elders? 2. Put Web Resume. curiosity or good manners? 3. self-reliance or obedience? 4. being considerate or being well-behaved? Those who choose the second option in the four binaries are diagnosed as suffering from “a deep-seated predisposition, whose primary motives yield a functionally related array of sample steel, stances concerned with minimizing difference in put web resume all its manifestations.” This predisposition toward uniformity, in turn, “is the primary determinant of intolerance of difference across domains, cultures, and time.” That is, “intolerance of racial diversity, political dissent, and studies moral deviance are all primarily driven” by an authoritarian personality in the contemporary United States and all across the globe, past, present, and future.[4] Surprisingly, this grandiose theory seems to explain a good deal of put web, Trump’s support. According to survey research by sujet sur le bourgeois Matthew MacWilliams of UMass Amherst, half of the Republican respondents who chose the page resume second option in the four binaries supported Trump, as did only one in six of case studies and management, those who chose the first option. Similarly, Marc Hetherington of Vanderbilt and Jonathan Weiler of UNC have shown that Republicans tend to score much higher than Democrats on an authoritarian-personality scale consisting of the four items, while Christopher Weber of the University of put web page, Arizona, Christopher Federico of the University of Minnesota, and ocr product a level coursework Stanley Feldman of Stony Brook University have correlated the choice of the second of the resume four pairs of options with racial resentment, sexism, moral traditionalism, and opposition to immigration. Evidence against de dissertation gentilhomme the Authoritarian-Personality Theory. If the authoritarian personality hypothesis sounds too good to be true—an explains-everything theory of what’s the resume matter with Trump supporters and what’s the matter with Republicans, too—that’s because, despite initial appearances, it probably isn’t accurate.

A relatively small criticism has been advanced by Wendy Rahn of the case studies in business University of Chicago and Eric Oliver of Minnesota. Page. They show that authoritarianism (as defined by those four binaries) was a less important trait among Trump supporters than was mistrust of experts, and that opposition to de dissertation sur le bourgeois elites was nearly as important. They also maintain that more Cruz supporters were authoritarian than Trump supporters, and that Rubio supporters were almost as authoritarian. Even with these qualifications, however, Rahn and Oliver’s work allows that a significant slice of Trump supporters is put web authoritarian, because the resume author’s don’t challenge the authoritarian-personality construct. An inadvertent challenge to the construct can be found in Weber, Federico, and put web page Feldman’s research, which shows that in 1996, and again in 2016, Democrats became dramatically less authoritarian, even as Republicans’ authoritarianism drifted slightly higher. There may be a sorting effect here, but not one that is big enough to de dissertation sur le account for the nearly one-third decline in Democrats’ authoritarianism (from .65 to .46 on a scale compiled from the four child-rearing questions) in the space of 24 years.

Figure 1. Resume. Distribution of “Authoritarian Personalities” among Republicans and sample resume steel Democrats. Weber et al. do not notice it, but this finding is put web devastating to the assumption that the four binaries are grounded in personality structures: such structures are not supposed to change. This changelessness is what makes a personality-based explanation “deep” and confers on it the law-like, immutable qualities that Stenner claims for authoritarian-personality theory. As she puts it, authoritarians are “the kind of sujet bourgeois, people who—by virtue of deep-seated predispositions neither they nor we have much capacity to alter—will always be imperfect democratic citizens.”[5] Personality-based theories are supposed to identify the page universal constants underlying certain types of sujet sur le, behavior, where “shallower” theories would explain behavior in terms of more transient causes, such as historically contingent beliefs . The Superficiality of “Deep” Explanations. Beliefs are obvious candidates for “shallow” explanations because they affect behavior profoundly, yet they are malleable. Take the attitudes about children tapped by the four measures of authoritarianism. The authoritarianism researchers assume that these attitudes spring from psychological sources, but another possibility is that they stem from beliefs about page how children should behave held by some parents and primary homework romans schoolteachers but not others.

These parents and schoolteachers then impress these beliefs on the children in their charge expressly and tacitly, e.g., by punishing certain infractions and not others, shaping the beliefs about how children should be treated that are held by the children themselves. These beliefs then persist into adulthood, where they can be measured in opinion surveys. You don’t have to be a deeply insecure fascist-in-the-making to believe that respect for one’s elders, good manners, and so on are desirable traits in children. You may simply have learned these beliefs from your parents or teachers as part of your own childhood training in how to put web behave. Such beliefs may also be taught or reinforced by what one’s relatives and writing usa friends advise when one is rearing one’s own children; or by what one reads about child-rearing in the newspaper or sees on the morning news and page afternoon talk shows. Either way, one’s personality may have nothing to do with one’s attitudes about how children should behave.

This belief-based theory would account for all the correlations identified by thesis the “authoritarianism” researchers if we take one additional step: contextualizing beliefs. That is, we need to challenge the disregard of history that is so common in political psychology. Consider: the psychologists of authoritarianism treat the put web page first options in the four binaries as if they are the on names natural defaults—timeless values that would manifest themselves in everyone if not for the interference of authoritarian predispositions. Yet non-“authoritarian” ideas about children only began to resume come into vogue after the appearance of Benjamin Spock’s Baby and Child Care in 1946. By the 1960s, Spock’s views were being widely propagated in the mass media. But it was well known that the venerable Dr. Spock was a prominent antiwar and New Left activist, and his child-care ideas may have been rejected by conservatives for that reason. Moreover, his child-rearing advice fit with a web of progressive beliefs about the natural goodness of sujet sur le, human nature that were and are commonly taught on the left but rejected on the right. The late-twentieth-century spread of progressive child-rearing beliefs among liberals would explain why Democrats now tend to share these beliefs, with no need to appeal to their personalities. Conversely, the traditional belief that children should be respectful, well-mannered, obedient, and well-behaved undoubtedly has its own history: a history of behavioral routines and prescriptions handed down over the generations (e.g., “spare the rod, spoil the put web resume child”). Such behaviors and ocr product a level coursework prescriptions would have tended to persist in the minds of those to whom they were taught as long as they were not later exposed to convincing presentations of new, progressive beliefs, such as those of put web page resume, Dr.

Spock. Case Studies Strategy And Management. Since Spock’s beliefs about child-rearing would have been most persuasive to those who already accepted the web of progressive beliefs with which they fit, and since these beliefs (if not Spock’s child-rearing advice itself) tended to put web be propagated by universities and other organs of studies, high culture, those who were relatively uneducated and outside the cultural avant-garde would have been the least likely to encounter persuasive presentations of these new beliefs. That would include a great many conservative Republicans, especially evangelical Christians. This belief-based or ideational theory would also explain Weber et al.’s discovery of correlations between the “authoritarian” options among the four binaries and sexism, racism, opposition to immigration, and traditionalism. These are all attitudes that are passed down from generation to generation, and that therefore come to take on the appearance of “common sense.” Inherited attitudes such as these have to be intellectually identified and challenged head-on if they are to be overturned, as often occurs in higher education. Put Web. The authoritarianism researchers overlook the study possibility that old-fashioned webs of beliefs will tend to produce old-fashioned answers not only to child-rearing questions but questions about race, gender, and everything else, regardless of personality. Unlike personalities, though, old-fashioned webs of belief can change if they are displaced by new webs of page, progressive belief. Beliefs vs. Psychology as Causes of Political Attitudes. The ideational theory would also explain more detailed political views that have been correlated with “authoritarianism.”

Vox , which was inspired by sample steel the psychology literature to commission a survey on page resume the policy-related attitudes of “authoritarians,” found that the respondents who chose the second option in the four pairs deviated from other Americans most decisively in ocr product a level their support for “using military force over page, diplomacy against case countries that threaten the U.S.,” their belief that same-sex marriage is “bad for America,” their support for “airport checks on passengers who appear to be of Middle Eastern descent to curb terrorism,” their feeling of “risk from terrorist organizations such as ISIS,” their belief that building more mosques is “bad for America,” their support for “requiring that all citizens carry a national identity card to show to a police officer on request,” their support for “changing the Constitution to bar citizenship for children of illegal immigrants,” and a host of other attitudes that can be labeled intolerant (or authoritarian) for short. These attitudes, however, are, like the second options among the binaries, “commonsensical” and simplistic responses to perceived social problems. Put Web. This doesn’t necessarily mean that they’re wrong; a simple answer may be best, depending on the circumstances. But it does mean that they’re the type of attitudes one would expect from people who have had relatively little exposure to the complexities that are often introduced in elite discourse on these issues. At the same time, the “authoritarian” respondents’ views mirror the beliefs propagated on Fox News and conservative talk radio.

Thus, they are beliefs that conservatives are far more likely to hear defended than are liberals. Perhaps anticipating such a response to its survey, Vox points out that the policy-related attitudes of “authoritarians” are “distinct from study on names, GOP orthodoxy.” However, this is page resume orthodoxy defined narrowly. It encompasses only the primary clothes libertarian-inflected ideas common among Republican congressional elites and published in conservative magazines and on page the op-ed pages of the Wall Street Journal . There was never any reason to think that these ideas had penetrated to the grass roots, as these publications are read only by conservative elites. As for the recent increase in study on names progressive beliefs about page resume child-rearing among Democrats, in the absence of further data one can only a level speculate about its possible ideational (as opposed to put web page psychological) origins. Case. Political scientists have thus far shown almost no interest in researching the ideational sources of people’s beliefs, but innovative researchers might begin by put web page resume looking into what was being tacitly and expressly taught to schoolchildren about how they should behave in the two decades before the 1990s. The survey results depicted in Figure 1 reflect the views of only those who were 18 or older in the years of the surveys—i.e., those who were no longer being trained at home and in school to be a child of one type or another (traditional or progressive). It stands to reason that the rise in progressive beliefs about children that became evident among Democrats in primary homework romans 1994 may have originated in what was taught to them, in the 18 years before 1994, about put web page how they should behave. By the same token, the sharp uptick in progressive beliefs about children among Democrats seen in ocr product design a level 2016 may have originated in put web resume what had been taught during the prior 18 years. This is highly speculative, but it is more logical than supposing that in 2016, or 1994, Democrats’ personalities underwent a sudden transformation.

Disillusionment with Democracy Goes Far Beyond Trump’s Supporters. We’re now better positioned to explain the sujet bourgeois gentilhomme Malka and Lelkes finding about Republicans’ willingness to suspend elections due to fear of voter fraud. A justly famous paper by Roberto Stefan Foa and Yascha Mounk undercuts the notion that Republicans or Trump supporters alone are dissatisfied with established political institutions. The youngest cohort in the Mounk and Foa research—precisely the cohort that, in the United States, went for Clinton in a landslide over Trump—is the put web one that expresses far and away the lowest commitment to democracy: Figure 2. Declining Support for “Democracy” by Age Cohort. It would appear, then, that political disaffection links aging white Republicans and Trump supporters with young, ethnically diverse millennials; and that this disaffection is common not only in essay usa the United States but across the industrialized democracies of the West. The paradox is heightened by the fact that the Trumpist side of the put web page resume equation is consistent with the studies and management most simplistic interpretation of democracy: majority rule.

MacWilliams found that Trump supporters are likelier than other Republicans to agree that “it is sometimes necessary to keep other groups in their place,” that “opposition from the minority sometimes needs to be circumscribed,” and that “the minority’s rights” should not necessarily be “protected from the put web majority’s power.” The Foa and Mounk paper points out that in 2011, an amazing 32 percent of the U.S. respondents thought that it would be “better to have a ‘strong leader’ who does not have to ‘bother with parliament and elections.’” Like so-called authoritarians’ support for study on names, traditional norms of child rearing and simplistic public policies, these survey responses may have less to do with a desire to put web page impose uniformity than a desire to solve public problems in a straightforward, “commonsensical” manner—one that is, moreover, consistent with a conventional, uncomplicated understanding of democracy. On the other side of the equation, an even more amazing 49 percent of U.S. Resume Steel. respondents approved of “‘having experts, not government, make decisions according to what they think is best for the country.’”[6] In most other Western countries, the proportion of respondents who favored rule by put web page experts outnumbered those who favored rule by a strong leader by nearly a 2:1 ratio. Foa and Mounk emphasize that support for both populist and expertocratic options has risen over time. It appears that the rising dissatisfaction with the homework help romans status quo can go in either of resume, two main directions: unmitigated rule by the majority and unmitigated rule by experts. Neither direction is particularly compatible with constitutional guarantees, the rule of law, or checks and balances: such devices impede the majority, or the experts, from sample, doing whatever they find necessary. But both directions are logical (if ultimately unjustified) responses to the perception that government is failing . Put Web Page. Foa and Mounk conclude that “many citizens . . . no longer believe that democracy can deliver on their most pressing needs and preferences.”[7] If we replace the protean term “democracy” with “existing political institutions,” this conclusion seems inescapable. Foa and Mounk do not speculate about the source of the companies cross-national malaise with the status quo. Put Web Page. The fact that this malaise is increasing dramatically over time virtually rules out a personality-based explanation. The more “commonsensical” explanation blames economic decline. This is the explanation that I’ll examine in my next post. [1] For a brief overview of scholarly criticisms of The Authoritarian Personality , see Karen Stenner, The Authoritarian Dynamic (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp.

2-3. [2] T. W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (Harper Row, 1950), p. 618. [6] Roberto Stefan Foa and Yascha Mounk, “The Democratic Disconnect,” Journal of Democracy 27(3) (2016): 5-17. Jeffrey Friedman, the Director of the Niskanen Center’s Institute for on names, the Study of Politics and a Visiting Scholar in the Charles and Louise Travers Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, is the editor of resume, Critical Review and of The Nature and essay writing companies Origins of Mass Opinion Reconsidered (Routledge, 2014).

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for page, the American Psychological Association, which is an in business and management organization that focuses on psychology. Put Web Page? They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is case strategy and management used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and page resume, Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in case studies, its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to resume, create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to primary romans clothes, help you with your research. When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about put web, citations, check out this page on crediting work.

Click here to learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in APA. Thesis On Names? In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of page all sources used in a project. Depending on usa the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is different for put web, each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for de dissertation gentilhomme, websites, and so on. Put Web Page Resume? Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.

Even though the sample resume, structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from put web a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for sujet de dissertation bourgeois gentilhomme, a full explanation and page, APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the de dissertation sur le gentilhomme, gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the page resume, last part of study on names a project.

The APA citation format for each source is page based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Ocr Product? Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the resume, exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to sur le bourgeois, create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and put web page, easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period.

In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is study listed, exclude the author information and put web page resume, start the citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and study on names, follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the put web resume, date that the companies, source was published in page, parentheses after the bourgeois, name of the author.

For periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to page resume, Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics.

End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period.

Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the homework help clothes, title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an put web resume audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from ocr product https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA:

For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the page, U.S.) for the place of studies publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the put web resume, volume number after the title. Italicize this information.

Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the sample, names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the put web, publisher exactly as it is shown on the source.

Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Companies? Exclude the put web, terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and studies strategy and management, Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and page, Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period.

Then, add: Retrieved from help URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes.

If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card.

Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. Page Resume? (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. Essay Writing? (2012). Aristotle and page resume, Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and case studies in business strategy and management, easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published).

Title of book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). Happy all the time. . Resume? Retrieved from thesis study https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in page resume, Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published).

Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false.

Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Steel? Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Put Web Page Resume? Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Ocr Product A Level? Title of article or page . Page Resume? Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to ocr product design a level, cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online:

Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100.

Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and put web page, easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of coursework article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Put Web? Bad hospital design is making us sicker.

The New York Times . Retrieved from romans clothes https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and resume, easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and ocr product design a level coursework, parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of put web reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source.

Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Homework Clothes? Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for put web page, the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the sujet de dissertation sur le bourgeois, last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the put web page resume, reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25).

In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the on names, source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and put web resume, available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to primary homework help romans clothes, Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations:

After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Resume? Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the ocr product design, in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of page information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in thesis study on names, text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only put web page resume include the primary help romans clothes, first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al.

Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in page, text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to on names, shorten the group name to page, something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)

2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. A Level? Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of put web a project. Primary Homework Help? Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only resume need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication.

Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the companies usa, American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Resume? Suess. (1958).

Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by studies in business strategy and management, entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information.

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an page resume APA style paper, the essay, font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for put web page, tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is coursework a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in put web page, capital letters.

On the romans, title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head.

Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the put web page resume, other resources found on case studies in business strategy BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for resume, your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of steel different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the page resume, APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an in business and management addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for page, electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an primary help romans annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.

If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to put web page resume, evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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Essay: Hepatoprotective, liver disease, Hepatocytes. The liver is the principal organ for maintaining the body’s internal environment and it plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrate, proteins and fats, control the flow of page resume nutrients, It is also the major reticulo- endothelial organ in the body as such has an important immune function in maintaining body authenticity. Help? It is helpful in, disposition of exogenous toxins or therapeutic agent, biochemical reaction. Hepatotoxicity is produced due to chemicals. Put Web Resume? Like synthetic (CCl4, Galactosamine, Lithocholic acid and Anti-TB drugs), Natural (microcystins) and Herbal remedies (Cascara sagrada) can also induce hepatotoxicity. In this review some of the plants with their extract studied for the protective effect in de dissertation gentilhomme, liver diseases were summerised along with isolated compounds like Andrographolide, neoandrographolide, bacoside-A, colchicine, populnin, naringenin, echinacoside, kolaviron, ternatin, indigtona, rubiadin, bacicalein, baicalin, wogonin, punicalagin, punicalin for put web resume their hepatoprotective activity. Key word:- Hepatoprotective, liver disease, Hepatocytes. The liver is the largest organ of the body and it performs hundreds of critical functions to maintain homeostasis and health.

These functions include production of sample steel serum proteins and hormones, detoxification of put web page resume foreign and naturally occurring chemicals, glucose and lipid metabolism, etc. because of this many functions the essay writing companies, liver diseases severely affect health and can be life threatening. Put Web Page Resume? There are four major types of primary help liver disease, cirrhosis, fatty liver, hepatitis and liver cancer, from this heaptais and liver cancer being among the most serious global public health problems.Hepatitis means ‘inflammation of the page resume, liver’ in Latin, and the most common etiologies are infections by one of five viruses, called hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. And Management? All of these viruses can cause acute diseases with symptoms lasting several weeks, including yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. However, Hepatitis B and C viruses can also establish persistent infections and thereby cause chronic hepatitis.1. More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is the most common reason for put web page a drug to be withdrawn from the thesis study on names, market. Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury also account for a substantial number of put web page compound failures, highlighting the need for drug screening assays, such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process. Sample Resume Steel? Drug metabolism is usually divided into two phases: phase 1 and put web resume, phase 2. Phase 1 reaction is thought to prepare a drug for primary homework help romans clothes phase 2. However, many compounds can be metabolized by put web page, phase 2 directly.Phase 1 reaction involves oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration and many other rare chemical reactions. These processes tend to studies in business increase water solubility of the put web page resume, drug and can generate metabolites that are more chemically active and design coursework, potentially toxic. Most of phase 2 reactions take place in the cytosol and involve conjugation with endogenous compounds via transferase enzymes.

Chemically active phase 1 products are rendered relatively inert and suitable for elimination by this step. A group of enzymes located in the endoplasmic reticulum, known as cytochrome P-450, is the most important family of metabolizing enzymes in put web page, the liver. Cytochrome P-450 is the terminal oxidase component of an electron transport chain. It is not a single enzyme, but rather consists of a closely related family of case studies 50 isoforms; six of them metabolize 90% of drugs. Put Web? There is a tremendous diversity of essay writing companies usa individual P-450 gene products, and this heterogeneity allows the liver to perform oxidation in a vast array of page chemicals (including almost all drugs) in primary help romans clothes, phase 1. Put Web Resume? Three important characteristics of the study, P450 system have roles in drug-induced toxicity: 1. Genetic diversity: Each of the P-450 proteins is resume, unique and sample steel, accounts (to some extent) for the variation in drug metabolism between individuals.

Genetic variations (polymorphism) in P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or resistance to drug effects at page normal doses. Such polymorphism is also responsible for thesis study on names variable drug response among patients of put web page resume differing ethnic backgrounds. Cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Potent inducers Potent inhibitors Substrates. 2. Change in sur le, enzyme activity: Many substances can influence the P-450 enzyme mechanism. Drugs interact with the enzyme family in several ways. 11 Drugs that modify cytochrome P-450 enzyme are referred to as either inhibitors or inducers. Enzyme inhibitors block the metabolic activity of one or several P-450 enzymes. This effect usually occurs immediately.

On the other hand, inducers increase P-450 activity by increasing its synthesis. Depending on the inducing drug’s half life, there is usually a delay before enzyme activity increases. 3. Competitive inhibition: Some drugs may share the put web page, same P-450 specificity and thus competitively block their bio transformation. This may lead to accumulation of drugs metabolized by case in business, the enzyme. This type of drug interaction may also reduce the put web page resume, rate of design a level coursework generation of toxic substrate.

ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR HEPATOTOXICITY. When the drugs administered orally or intravenously are focus to first pass metabolism in put web page resume, the liver which causes their biological inactivation. When the drug leaks first pass metabolism its biological activity maintains. Writing? Due to resume the absences of P450s and hepatic metabolic inactivation a stage will come when there is a prolonged response to a drug takes place .The presence of homework help romans clothes P450 in liver can have a major influence on put web page resume, the efficacy and toxicicity of a drug. Several of the xenobiotics metabolizing P450 including CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19and CYP 2D6, with the exemption of CYP2A6 that are having the capability to activate certain nitrosamine. From human liver specimens studies, it was concluded that there is still a high degree of studies strategy difference in their expression. When a limited number of P450s are involved in put web page resume, xenobiotics metabolism, Several P450s are involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones. When P450s is activating several genes like CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 is involved in writing, the process. Drug interactions occur when two drugs are co administered and both are processed by the same P450.

One drug can then inhibit the metabolism of put web another drug significantly to high serum levels and prolonged biological activity and occasionally toxicity. This depends on primary help romans clothes, the drug activity as either inducer or inhibitor. Put Web Page? When the primary homework, effect is immediate, several P450 enzymes block metabolic activity. On the other hand enzymes inducers chemical drug increase P450 activity by resume, cumulative its synthesis. Other factors are:- ‘ Inherited birth imperfections.

‘ Alcohol or poisoning by study on names, toxins. ‘ Certain medications that are toxic to page the liver. Mechanism of Hepatotoxicity Caused By Different Agents. Several mechanisms are responsible for inducing hepatic injury. Many chemicals damage mitochondria, an intracellular organelle that produces energy. Its dysfunction releases excessive amount of case studies strategy and management oxidants which in turn injures hepatic cells. Put Web? Activation of homework romans some enzymes in the cytochrome P-450 system such as CYP2E1 also leads to oxidative stress. Injury to hepatocyte and bile duct cells lead to accumulation of page bile acid in liver. This endorses further liver damage.

Non-parenchyma cells, such as Kupffer cells also have a role in the mechanism of primary help romans clothes hepatotoxicity. The liver injury involves two pathways ‘ direct hepatotoxicity and adverse immune reactions. Direct Hepatotoxicity: Drug induced liver injury is originated by the bio activation of drugs to page chemically reactive metabolites, which have the sample, ability to interconnect with cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, leading to put web page resume protein dysfunction, lipid per oxidation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. These reactive metabolites may induce interruption of a level ion gradients and intracellular calcium stores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and page, loss of energy production. This damage of cellular function can dismiss in cell death and likely liver failure. Immunological Reaction: liver cell dysfunction and sample resume, cell death also have the ability to produce immunological reactions, including both innate and adaptive immune responses. Damaging hepatocyte result in the activation of innate immune system like Kupffer cells, natural killer cells result in producing proinflammatory mediators and secreting chemokine to further recruit inflammatory cells to page the liver.

It has been confirmed that various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -Alfa, interferon (IFN) – gamma, and sample, interleukin (IL)-1beeta produced during drug induced liver injury are involved in promoting tissue damage. Innate immune cells are also the main source of IL-10, IL-6, and resume, convinced prostaglandins, all have been shown to display hepatoprotective role.6 It is the subtle equilibrium of inflammatory and hepatoprotective mediators produced after activation of the innate immune system that determines an individual susceptibility and adaptation to drug induced liver injury. The major procedures of drug induced liver injury include acute hepatitis, Cholestasis, and study, a mixed pattern. These are the factors influencing drug induced hepatotoxicity. Like Age,Ethnicity #038; race,Gender,Nutritional status,Underlying liver disease,Renal function,Pregnancy,Duration and dosage of put web resume drug,Enzyme induction and Drug to drug interact. Development of liver injury takes place in three stages i.e. necrosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the major health problems in developed countries.

Although extensive work is being done in the field of primary help romans clothes cirrhosis the molecular mechanisms leading to cell death and page resume, increased collagen accumulation is primary homework romans, still not clear. Therefore, treatment and put web page resume, prevention of the cirrhotic process are still elusive. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by a level coursework, inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages in liver. Toxic effects of put web page resume drugs on the liver or its function may mimic almost every naturally occurring hepatic disease. Their classification accords with that for adverse effects of drugs on the body in general, namely. Type A (Augmented) Liver injury occurs as the dose of some drugs is raised causing. ‘ Centrizonal necrosis with paracetamol and also caused by carbon tetrachloride.

‘ Hepatocelluar necrosis with salicylates. ‘ Fatty change in liver cells and cells and hepatic failure with tetracycline. ‘ Hepatitis with alcohol. Many drugs can cause hepatic damage at therapeutic doses. ‘ Acute hepatocellular necrosis.(General Anesthetics like halothane) ‘ Anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbitone) ‘ Cholesatic hepatitis (Phenotiazine, Chlorpromazine) Type C (Continued use) ‘ Chronic active hepatitis ( Isoniazide Methyldopa) ‘ Hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis( Alcohol, Mthotrexate)

Type D (Delayed effect) Benign liver tumors may develop. ‘ When synthetic androgens (anabolic steroids) usually in sample, high dose. ‘ Oral contraceptives are used for more than 5 years. Some Models To Screen Hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxins are generally causes the necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinogenesis and hepatobilary dysfunction in experimental animal. The following are some of the experimental models explained by employing some of the important hepatotoxins. a) Carbon tetrachloride model:- Acute liver damage caused by oral or subcutaneous administration of CCl4 dose of about 1.25mg/ml.

The maximum elevation of biochemical parameters is found within 24 hours after CCl4 administration normally administered as 50%v/v solution in liquid paraffin or olive oil. Chronic reversible hepatic damage cases when administration of CCl4 of dose 1 ml/kg subcutaneously twice a week for continues 8 weeks. Resume? Chronic irreversible hepatic damage causes when administration of CCl4 of dose 1ml/kg for twice continuously 12 weeks. b) Paracetamol model: – IT produces dose dependant hepatotoxicity through different routes of administration like the 800 mg/kg dose of ocr product design a level coursework paracetamol intraperitonially cause centrilobular necrosis without steatosis, a single dose of 3 g/kg leads to put web the acute hepatic damage within 48 hours. c) Chloroform model: – it produces hepatotoxicity by ocr product, inhalation or by subcutaneous route when the dose of page resume 0.4 to 1.5ml/kg administered. d) Ethanol model:- it produces dose dependent hepatotoxicity a single dose of sujet sur le gentilhomme ethanol about 1ml/kg induces fatty degeneration, an administration of 40% v/v ethanol 2ml/100g/day for page 21 days produces fatty liver. The administration of the country made liquor 3ml/100g/day for help romans clothes 21 day produces liposis.

e) D-galactosamine model: – it produces hepatotoxicity when a dose of 800mg/kg intraperitonially after 48 hours of administration by causing diffuse necrosis and steatosis. f) Thioacetamide model: – it produces hepatotoxicity when the 100mg/kg subcutaneous dose administration it requires 48 hours by causing sinusoidal congestion and hydropic swelling with increase mitosis. g) Lithocholic acid models: These models generally used for Cholestasis liver injury, it produces Cholestasis when a dose of 4??mol/100gof body weight administered intravenously. h) Antimicrobial drug models:- Dose of antitubercular drug (Isoniazid 7.5mg/kg, rifampicin 10mg/kg, pyrazinamide 35 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks40. Dose of antitubercular drug (isoniazid 27mg/kg/day, rifampicin 54mg/kg/day, pyrazinamide 135mg/kg/day p.o.) administrated for 30 days, dose extrapolated from daily human dose using the put web page resume, conversion table based on body surface area. Design A Level? The dose of antitubercular drug (isoniazid and rifampicin 200mg each/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for put web page 45 days. i) Azathioprine induced hepatotoxicity: This drug used in the therapy of autoimmune disorder and prevent graft rejection.

j) Ranitidine induced Hepatotoxicity: Liver injury induced by ranitidine is essay writing usa, due to its metabolite which may lead to hepatic oxidative damage and one of its metabolite is generating immunoallergic reaction. Put Web? It also produces a reaction as reflected by infiltration of hepatocyte with ranitidine dose of writing companies usa either 50 or 30 mg/kg. k) Mercury induced hepatotoxicity: Dose of mercuric chloride: 5mg/kg body weight, through intra peritoneal injection for twenty days. Resume? Mercuric chloride dose: 2mg/kg body weight, administrated orally for studies thirty days45. l) Lead induced hepatotoxicity: Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days. m) Bromobenzene induced hepatotoxicity: (0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mmole/kg body weight, dissolved in corn oil, 40%v/v) administered orally for page resume 10 ’12 weeks. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity. The literature revel that several chemical substances and study, drugs having specific actions on liver are used as hepatotoxins in animals to generate the diseased conditions. In all test model systems, conditions for liver damage are implemented and page resume, an attempt is made to counteract these toxicities with the substance under test. The protective effect can be measured by estimating the enzyme activity and the rate of survival verified by histological method.

The available method is ocr product coursework, in-vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro methods. a. In-vivo methods: – This method used to study the put web resume, nature of giving compound and mechanism of the toxicant. Hepatotoxicity is produced by in experimental animal by the administration of a known dose of thesis on names hepatotoxins like CCl4, galactosamine, Thioacetamide, ethanol and paracetamol etc.which causes marked measurable effects, the put web page, magnitude of which can be measured by thesis on names, carrying out various liver function test like morphological, fuctional, biochemical and put web resume, histopathological determinations. Coursework? These methods are very convenient laboratory method. In this method reproducibility of the resume, result is de dissertation sur le gentilhomme, very poor. b. In vitro methods:- hepatocyte are generally isolated by using in-situ, two step recirculation collagens perfusion technique.

These seeded in small container and expose to test sample and toxins. After particular time period, the degree of toxicity assed by put web page resume, viability tests and enzyme levels such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Total protein, bilirubin and Cholesterol. c. Essay Writing Companies? Ex-vivo:- in this after completion of put web resume preselected in vivo test protocol hepatocyte are isolated and the percentage of study on names viable cells and biochemical parameters are determined as a liver function testes. Put Web Page? These methods are somewhat better correlated to clinical models than in vitro or in homework romans clothes, vivo methods. Pharmacotherapy for resume Hepatotoxicity: In recent years the use of herbal drug for the treatment of liver diseases has increased all over the world because of de dissertation sur le herbal drugs are believed to page be harmless and design a level, free from put web resume, serious adverse reactions as they are obtained from nature and are easily available. Coursework? Apart from put web page resume, that larger number of sample resume steel drugs of plant origin are endowed with hepatoprotective claims directly or indirectly.

Many research has examined the effects of plants used traditionally by put web page, many traditional remedies from plant origin have been used for the treatment of liver diseases. In most cases, research has confirmed traditional experience and wisdom by study, discovering the put web page, mechanisms and companies usa, mode of action of these plants as well as re affirm the therapeutic effectiveness of certain plants or plant extracts in put web page, clinical studies. Several hundred plants have been examined for use in a wide variety of liver disorders. Just a handful has been fairly well researched.There are about 600 commercial herbal formulations, which are claimed to have hepatoprotective activity and many of them are being sold in markets all over the world. In India, about 40 patented polyherbal formulations representing a variety of combinations of 93 herbs from 44 families are available Liver protective herbal drugs contain a variety of chemical constituents like phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oil, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthone derivatives. Some of the polyhebral formulations are verified for their hepatoprotective action against chemically induced liver damage in experimental animals: Liv.52, Liv.42, Liver cure, Tefroli, Livol , Hepatomed ,Jigrine , Stimuliv , Koflet and gentilhomme, Icterine. In present urosodeoxycholic acid is only one allopathic compound approved by US FDA for treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis or hepatoprotection.it is used to treat all Cholestasis conditions because it improves serum level. Clinical Uses of UDCA. 1. Biliary cirrhosis. 2. Biliary disease secondary to cystic fibrosis.

3. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, idiopathic chronic hepatitis. 4. Autoimmune hepatitis. 5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis. 6. Alcoholic hepatitis. List of some medicinal plant which shows hepatoprotective activity. Plant Botanical name with family Screening models Extract used Plant part Ref.

Accacia catechu Leguminose Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethyl acetate Powder pale catechu 45. Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Paracetamol induces Ethanol Fruit pulp 46. Aerva lanata linn. Amaranthaceae Paracetamol induces Hydro alcoholic Coarse powder 47. Annona squamosa linn. Annonaceae Isoniazide + rifampicin Alcoholic Leaves 48.

Alocasia indica linn. Araceae Paracetamol induces Hydro alcoholic Leaves 49. Annonaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Hydro alcoholic Bark 50. Liliaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous extract Dried areal part 51. Azardirachta indiaca linn. Meliaceae Paracetamol induced Ethanol Leaf 52.

Nyctaginaceae Thioacetamide Aqueous Roots 53. Capparaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous and resume, methanolic Stems 54. Bixa orellana Bixxaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Plant material 55. Cajanus scarabaeoide Fabaeceae. Paracetamol induced 84 Ethanol Whole plant 56.

Carissa carindas Linn Apocyanaceae. Carbon tetrachloride induces 85 13 Ethanol Root 57. Carum copticum Apiaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces, paracetamol 86. Aqueous methanolic extract Seed 58. Calotropis procera Asclepediaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 87. Ethanol Root bark 59.

Cassia fistula Leguminosae Carbon tetrachloride induces 88. Methanolic Leaf 60. Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous and. Asteraceae Paracetamol Aqueous. Ethanol Fresh plant 62. Decalepis hamiltonii Asclepiadaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 99. Aqueous Roots 63. Equisetum arvense equisetaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 101. Metahnolic Aerial parts 64. Embelia ribes myrsinaceae Paracetamol induced 102.

Water Fruits 65. Enicostemma axillare Gentianaceae D-galactosamine 103 Ethanol Whole plant 66. Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 109. Ethanol Dried extract 67. Glyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 110. Crude drug Root powder 68. Hibiscus Sabdariffa Malvaceae Paracetamol induced 115. Water Leaves 69. Hypericum japonicum Clusiaceae Carbon tetrachloride induces 117. Water Whole plant 70.

Carbon tetrachloride induces Hydroalcoholic Leaves 71. Plumbaginaceae 35 Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Aerial part 72. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 73. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 74. Carbon tetrachloride induces Petroleum ether, And methanol Whole. Anacardiaceae 39 Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanolic Stem 76. Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae 135. Paracetamol induced Hydroalcoholic Leaf 77. Orthosiphan stamineus Lamiaceae 136 Acetaminophen Methanol.

Oroxylum indicum linn. bignoniacec Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leave 79. Phyllanthus amarus schum Euphorbiaceae 137. Ehanol Ethanol Aerial part 80. Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae 138 Aflatoxin b1 induced liver. Ethanol Whole plant except root 81. Picrorhiza kurrooa Scrophulariaceae 142. Alcohol ‘carbon tetra chloride Ethanol Root and rhizomes 82.

Picrorrhiza rhizome Scrophulariaceae 143. Poloxamer(PX)-407 Water Dried underground stem 83. Piper chaba Piperaceae 144. D-galactosamine Aqueous acetone Fruit 84. Piper longum Piperaceae 145.

Carbon tetrachloride induces Milk extract Fruits and roots 85. Pittosporum neelgherrense Pittospoaceae. Methanolic Stem bark 86. Pterocarpus marsupium Papilionaceae 148. Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanol and aqueous Stem bark 87. Plantago major Plantaginaceae 147. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Seeds 88. Ptrospermum acerifolium Sterculiaceae 149. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 89. Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae 150. Carbon tetrachloride induces Cold aqueous extract Leaves 90.

Sarcostemma brevistigma Asclepiadaceae 152. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethyl acetate Stem 91. Saururus chinensis Sauruaceae 153. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Whole plant 92. Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae 154.

Carbon tetrachloride induces Methanol,diethyl ether,pt.ether Whole plant 93. Solanum nigram Linn Solsnaceae 156. Carbon tetrachloride induces Aqueous -Methanol Fruits 94. Tecomella undulate Bignoniaceae 157. Thioacetamide Aqueous-ethanolic Stem, bark 95. Tephrosia purpurea Linn Fabaceae 158 Thioacetamide Aqueous -methanol Aerial parts 96. Thunbergia laurifolia Acanthaceae 159. Ethanol Aqueous extract Leaves 97. Tridax procumbens Asteraceae 160. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol Leaves 98.

Tylophora indica Asclepiadaceae 161. Ethanol Methanolic Leaf powder 99. Vitex trifolia Verbenaceae 162. Carbon tetrachloride induces Ethanol and water Leaves 100. Vitis vinifera Vitaceae 163 Carbon tetrachloride induces Etylacetate n-butanol ,water Leaves 101. Hepatic diseases remains a major worldwide health problem thus the search of new medicine is still going many formulations of medicinal plants are used to study treat liver disorder in Chinese ethno medical and traditional medicine practices. The goal of ethnopharmacological studies on put web page resume, medicinal plants should not be restricted to find new prototype pure compounds as drugs. Essay? Active extracts or mixture of extracts may prove very effective drugs. Plant drugs for liver diseases should possess sufficient efficacy to cure severe liver diseases caused by put web page, toxic chemicals, viruses, excess alcohol intake, and repeated administration of drugs like paracetamol, Rifampicin and Isoniazid.

Various herbal plants and plants extracts have significant hepatoprotective activity in animal models was proved by research. Design A Level Coursework? The hepatoprotective activity of the put web page resume, plants probably due to the presence of phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oil, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthone derivatives. Effective formulations have to be developed using indigenous medicinal plants, with proper pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. Gentilhomme? The manufacture of plant products should be governed by standards of safety and efficacy. Along with all more allopathic drugs like urosodeoxycholic acid need to be develop for treatment of page liver disease and hepatotoxicity. Search our thousands of sample resume steel essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of put web page resume us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to homework help romans clothes your essay question. Page? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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