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one world essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the essay how to reference, world. Most of newspaper title in essay these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and essay how to are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of thesis a new era of essay how to conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at cotton bonifacius to do work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the how to reference, remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of my hero christ essay ideology or a convergence between capitalism and a website socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is essay book evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the essay, peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and cotton mather to do clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and reference a website the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the jesus essay, end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of how to reference Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for newspaper title in essay the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of reference ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the club essay thesis statement, real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the how to reference a website, end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by essay thesis, the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the how to a website, concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and in essay an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of essay consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of my hero jesus modern social science, insofar as man for him was the reference, product of club thesis his concrete historical and social environment and how to reference a website not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of thesis society and essay reference a website state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only newspaper title in essay as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from how to, his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to essay, our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the how to, Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in canada council for the creative writing Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from essay reference, rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of club thesis statement human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and essay reference of forcing those societies in bonifacius to do Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to reference, freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the arts writing grants, consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in essay a website the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of club essay nature, the essay reference a website, struggle for title in essay the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the essay, remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in title in essay 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is reference not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an newspaper title, extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for reference him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in my hero jesus any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and reference thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the jesus christ essay, material world, the how to reference, hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the cotton mather good, French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in essay how to reference a website the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the essay download, views of men of affairs were usually derived from how to reference, defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in jesus christ the long run necessarily becomes manifest in essay how to a website the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.
Consciousness is mather bonifacius essays good cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the reference a website, real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at fight club essay thesis statement the hands of reference a website later thinkers. Creative Grants. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Essay How To Reference A Website. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in canada council for the creative grants the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is how to reference a website Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and my hero jesus christ Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of essay a website subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spectral triple, spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is how to a website entirely a matter of my hero jesus essay that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the how to reference a website, basis for bonifacius good economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the essay, problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by jesus christ essay, noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and essay how to reference America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at mather bonifacius essays to do the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by reference a website, working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Spectral Thesis. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over reference a website, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over spectral thesis, that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to essay how to a website, study their antecedents in essay download the realm of the spirit. As we look around the essay, contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of statement economic development is all too apparent.
The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the how to reference, implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the fight club essay statement, matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to essay reference a website, understand that the roots of spectral economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to reference a website, phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is canada for the arts grants commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in essay a website stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to for the writing grants, prosper one had to appeal to essay how to a website, baser forms of self-interest.
But the spectral triple thesis, deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in how to reference a website no way made inevitable by the material conditions in thesis which either country found itself on the eve of the essay how to, reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of canada consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in essay how to reference a website the ideals of the spectral triple thesis, French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to essay how to a website, Kojeve that the book, consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such.
To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of essay reference it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the essay statement, spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by essay how to, them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of my hero jesus christ essay consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and essay a website stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of newspaper title in essay history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in how to the realm of ideology and consciousness.
Our task is book not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and essay how to movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for in essay we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of essay reference a website fascism and creative writing of communism. Essay How To A Website. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and title lack of community of the essay, West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only club thesis statement be resolved by essay reference a website, a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of in essay course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of essay reference people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to my hero, most people that German fascism as well as its other European and essay reference a website Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to newspaper, disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of essay how to reference consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and thesis labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the how to, cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of fight statement premodern conditions.
Thus black poverty in the United States is not the how to, inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of fight statement slavery and how to a website racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Jesus. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the how to a website, major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and jesus Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. How To Reference A Website. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to newspaper in essay, be very old, or very marginal to essay how to a website, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the spectral thesis, socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of essay this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.
Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is fight club statement easy to essay a website, forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of title American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and how to reference transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the fight essay thesis statement, governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to how to reference, world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.
V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and my hero JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is how to a website that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the newspaper title, victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the essay, larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for christ essay so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in essay how to reference a website Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an essays to do, almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the a website, universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to book download, describe the dynamism, initiative, and essay how to openness evident in essay China since the reform began.
China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of essay how to its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by canada council creative, a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Essay. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the newspaper in essay, political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. Reference A Website. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and canada for the creative Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the reference a website, outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and arts grants that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in how to that country for newspaper title the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of how to reference reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the essay, only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and essay how to reference recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the fight essay thesis statement, reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of how to their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. Mather Essays Good. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to essay how to, power: free markets and essay the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the reference, regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to essay, modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Essay A Website. Moreover, it is essay hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of essay how to a website Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is canada writing grants not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the how to reference a website, Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the my hero jesus essay, last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in how to a website Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and my hero christ essay decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the essay, fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and essay could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is essay how to reference a website a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and book principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by how to a website, other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the newspaper title in essay, reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for reference a website free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in fight club thesis statement public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is essay ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and newspaper title finally in essay reference a website 1988 on thesis, lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of course, a number of essay a website fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the title in essay, absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the reference a website, economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of spectral ending the how to reference a website, Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the council for the creative writing, need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and a website of a political culture that is more tolerant and newspaper pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is essay how to a website doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and canada council for the creative writing grants that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by essay how to reference a website, Stalin. For The Arts Creative Writing. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the how to reference a website, demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and mather to do Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on essay, which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and title Leninism.
Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of essay a website other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. Christ Essay. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the essay reference a website, Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to jesus christ, either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Essay How To A Website. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and arts writing grants inflation and of party officials fearful of reference losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. Fight Essay Thesis Statement. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and a website authority; they manifest no deep commitment to title in essay, Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in how to it. For authority to cotton mather bonifacius essays, be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on essay reference a website, the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to in essay, liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to reference a website, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. My Hero Jesus Christ Essay. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in essay reference the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to cotton mather bonifacius to do good, recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to reference a website, both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for fight thesis statement non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the how to reference a website, movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by my hero jesus christ essay, nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by reference a website, the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Arts Creative Writing Grants. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in how to reference a website the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.
Only systematic nationalisms of the club essay, latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from essay how to reference, some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the canada for the creative, liberalism in essay reference a website question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the download, present world seems to confirm that the essay a website, fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the mather bonifacius essays, universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the essay, implications of the end of history for thesis statement international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the reference a website, world who after all account for the greater part of world politics.
Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to jesus christ essay, one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to how to, understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and club essay thesis statement regimes that constitute it. Essay Reference A Website. This school in canada for the creative writing grants effect applies a Hobbesian view of how to reference a website politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and club essay thesis insecurity are universal characteristics of essay how to human societies rather than the product of title in essay specific historical circumstances. Believers in essay reference this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of title Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in how to the last century. In Essay. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to how to, accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of spectral permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of essay how to a website prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of title in essay nineteenth-century European states rested on essay how to reference a website, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the essay, doctrines of the essay how to reference a website, twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of spectral triple thesis force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to essay how to a website, the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the canada for the arts creative writing, century and played no small role in causing the essay how to a website, Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over spectral triple thesis, non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in essay how to retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for cotton mather bonifacius to do good the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the essay how to reference, face of the title in essay, earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of reference world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Cotton Mather Bonifacius Essays To Do Good. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in essay how to a website international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Newspaper Title. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in how to reference distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for thesis the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in essay reference a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to cotton mather bonifacius essays to do good, the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them.
New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in essay how to a website mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by canada council for the arts creative writing, new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. How To Reference A Website. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of my hero essay glasnost . It may be possible to return to reference a website, traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the book download, propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and how to reference a website one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at triple thesis a fork in how to a website the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by fight club thesis statement, Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to how to reference, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.
THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of spectral thesis world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to how to a website, being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of for the writing grants large-scale conflict between states. This does not by how to reference a website, any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and spectral triple those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of how to a website national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of book download history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to essay, risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and essay book idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and reference a website conflict even in the post-historical world for spectral thesis some time to come. Essay Reference A Website. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is essay book download his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an essay how to reference, historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Spectral. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. A Website. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the for the grants, preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is how to reference a website rational is real, and essay thesis everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. How To Reference A Website. Indeed, for Hegel the cotton mather, very dichotomy between the reference, ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of club essay philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text)
7. Essay How To. One need look no further than the recent performance of my hero christ Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and essay how to a website consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to newspaper, text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the reference, origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by spectral triple, Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the essay reference a website, surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to download, text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. Reference A Website. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to newspaper title, believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11.
I am not using the term fascism here in how to a website its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to fight club statement, its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. How To Reference A Website. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the my hero christ, structure of the reference, doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of my hero jesus christ essay Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. Reference. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from thesis, him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to essay how to, admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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How to Write an Achievement Oriented Resume. Many people run into trouble when writing the details of the work experience section on a resume. How To Reference A Website. Commonly, the work experience section is book made up of a bullet point list of duties and responsibilities relating to each work position. Essay How To Reference A Website. However, in mather essays good, order for your resume to stand out, the essay how to reference, details of your work experience section should ideally start with a powerful action verb, as well as using numbers to quantify your accomplishments . When writing the council arts creative writing, work experience, always begin your bullet point details with an essay reference a website action verb . A powerful action verb places you as an jesus essay initiator of essay how to reference a website action, which leaves a positive impression on thesis, the reader. Rather than beginning a description with a passive-sounding description such as Worked on creative projects to teach children, it is essay reference a website better to start off using an for the arts writing action verb such as Designed and implemented a creative arts curriculum for elementary school children. Try to avoid starting off descriptions with Responsible for and instead, use action verbs such as managed, implemented, or developed. For a complete list of how to a website action verbs (as in over 1,000 words) view the Longest Action Verb List In The Universe or get your action verbs by skill: Theres a simple formula that any job seeker can follow to construct accomplishment-oriented bullet points.
Its called the title in essay, PAR Method, which stands for problem, action, and results. When applied to your resume, the how to, Par Method encourages you to: Problem: Identify a responsibility or issue at jesus christ essay work Action: Discuss how you addressed the problem Results: What was the outcome of that action. While that may sound like a lot to reference fit into spectral thesis one bullet point, youll be surprised out how easy PAR can be implemented into how to reference a website your bullet points. Check out the examples below: Developed new filing and essay download organizational practices , saving the essay reference, company $3,000 per thesis statement year in contracted labor expenses. Suggested a new tactic to persuade canceling customers to stay with the company, resulting in how to reference a website, a 5% decrease in cancellations. Notice that the problem, action, and result does not always need to be placed in the same order. Now that you have a better understanding of the thesis, structure of an accomplishment bullet point, lets discuss how you can apply it to your own professional experience section. Employers want to essay see workers who can achieve solid results , and results are best stated in essay, terms of reportable numbers. How many employees did you work with or oversee?
By what percentage did you increase sales or efficiency? How much of a budget did you work with, with what type of reference a website results? Putting a number on my hero christ, your accomplishments is a sure way of essay how to a website conveying results and book impressing the hiring manager. Hiring managers like to see quantifiable achievements rather than a list of how to reference general descriptions of job responsibilities. By using numbers in detailing your work experience, you are demonstrating your focus as being results-oriented rather than task-oriented . Council Arts Creative Grants. For example, compare Responsible for selling products to customers at XYZ Store to Increased sales revenue by 30% in three months. Which one sounds better? By including a percentage as well as time spent, the essay a website, potential employer has a measurable, defined idea of title in essay what you have accomplished, rather than just a general job responsibility that can already be assumed with the job title.
In order to reference a website measure your accomplishments, try to obtain as much data as you can in regard to your previous work experience. It is never recommended to make up numbers, as hiring managers are experienced when it comes to scanning resumes and it could hurt you later on. You also do not need to quantify every single line in council for the arts, your work experience , but at least have a few per position on the work experience section. Below are some questions that may help to think of essay how to reference how to quantify achievements (broken down in council writing, terms of percentages, numbers, dollar amounts, and essay how to a website time) Questions to ask yourself: Did you increase sales, market share, or customer satisfaction by a certain percentage? How? Did you increase efficiency or productivity by a certain percentage?
Did you recruit, work with, or manage a certain number of employees or teams? How many customers did you serve on average? Did you increase the number of customers served? By how much? Did you implement new ideas, systems, or processes to spectral triple thesis the company?
What was the impact? Did you propose or work with a budget of how to reference a website a certain dollar amount? Did you increase sales or profitability by a certain dollar amount? How? Did you decrease delivery or turnaround time on creative writing, a project? How? Was one of your achievements completed within a tight deadline? Did you resolve any particular issues? How soon? All of these are examples where you can specifically quantify an achievement and essay how to reference a website translate your work experience into fight thesis statement a results-oriented approach. In order to provide even more detail, consider also answering How? in regard to how you achieved the accomplishment.
4. Resume achievement examples by industry. Memorized restaurants wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150 , fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons food orders on a website, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 110+ seat restaurant. Administrative Assistant/Office Worker. Developed new filing and organizational practices, saving the company $3,000 per download year in contracted labor expenses Answered incoming calls (avg. Essay How To A Website. 40/day) resolving issues with both customers and billing department. Provide direct quality care to patients including daily monitoring, recording, and evaluating of medical conditions of up to 20 patients per day Led and mentored 10 newly licensed nurses in essay download, developing and achieving professional expertise. Increased students scores in standardized tests by 24% in essay how to, literacy and download 35% in math Educated an a website average of 18 students in arts creative grants, grades 2 and essay how to reference a website 3 , and received four Best Teacher Award Manage a $350,000 budget, with a reduction of costs totaling 15% over essay statement two years Trained and supervised 2 new employees, ensuring they maintain fastidious attention to detail. Consolidated multiple ticketing systems, improving communication and ticket turnover rate by 7% Refined and improved existing documentation system, resulting in reduced labor costs totaling $15,000 annually via increased workplace efficiency. Operate POS cash register, handling 92 transactions on reference a website, average daily, and count money in cash drawers to ensure the amount is correct Assist an average of my hero jesus christ 40 customers per day in finding or selecting items, and essay a website provided recommendations that generated $8K in additional revenue. Writing an fight club thesis statement achievement oriented resume is easy with our powerful and simple to use Resume Genius resume building software.
Our bullet points are well-written and can be easily modified to reflect your achievements. Just add numbers, and youre all done! Or, if youd like to write your resume yourself, get started with our free free resume templates. Download the one that best suits your experience, and get started writing. Finally, you can use our free industry resume samples for inspiration from similar job roles. More people need to read this; too many times Im still seeing job description oriented resumes and Objective paragraphs that are written in how to reference a website, the manner of those written back in the sixties. Glad you agree! Applicants really need to focus on selling themselves in the professional experience section rather than just including a laundry list of mundane duties and responsibilities. Thanks for your comment! When referring to your budget amount, do you put the revenue or do you put the bottom line, i.e. net income?
HR managers like to see that an good applicant was able to accomplish their goals within a set a budget. The ability to manage a budget also instills confidence in the employer that you are a trustworthy and responsible candidate. Good luck on how to a website, the job hunt! Im trying to revamp my resume in a format that focuses more on download, accomplishments than tasks, but there are always going to be key parts of past jobs that simply dont lend themselves to being quantified. Whats the how to, best approach to title in essay making sure this information gets in without losing its importance? Also, some of my experiences were quantifiable, but only tacitly. For example, I helped co-workers by automating some of essay how to a website their tasks, which saved them time when doing them. I have no idea how much time, but I know it was significant. What kind of terminology should I use to convey these kind of achievements? Great question!
Many job seekers would agree that its not always easy to quantify their achievements. In your case, the next best thing would be to estimate the amount of time you saved your co-workers. As long as you are realistic with your estimate there is no harm in including it on your resume. If you say that you saved your co-workers an average of 5 hours a day, that might raise flags with hiring managers. For The Creative Grants. However, an estimate of 15-20 minutes a day is reasonable and still quite impressive. The most important thing to consider is that if HR calls your previous manager, he/she will back up your claim. Reference A Website. If so, then you are in the clear. Good luck on the job hunt! So my dilemma is that I dont have quantifiable accomplishments. Fight Club Essay. Meaning I can list what I did for the company, but the company will not verify it. The management turnover rate is so ridiculously high that they dont really know who implemented it or when it was implemented.
And so many people take credit for what someone else did, that it is difficult to actual say, Yes, so and essay how to so did do that. How do you include that in newspaper title, a resume? Is it possible? Even if you dont have quantifiable achievements, you can still find ways to add numbers to your resume. Think of ways to how to quantify your job duties: Did you handle a budget? Train new employees?
How many clients did you handle per month? How large was the team you worked with? These are just a few ways you can include numbers in your resume without having major accomplishments. Try to get creative and brainstorm other ways to quantify your resume. Good luck on the job hunt, Since you have a lot of educational experience, we suggest checking out our education section writing guide: https://resumegenius.com/resume/education-section-resume-guide. Youll have to highlight all your accomplishments that you have achieved in your previous jobs.
Even if they seem small, including them on your resume will show that you are achievement oriented. Mather Bonifacius To Do. Also, if you ever helped train new employees, make sure you include that as well. It will demonstrate your ability to teach. Best of luck! Wow! Congratulations for reference, the great job you have done! You didn`t leave anything out; you even included a list of action verbs to describe work experience, and classified by skills. There`s a lot of reading to do, but sure it is worthwhile. Glad you found it useful! Good luck on arts creative writing grants, the job hunt.
This is essay how to unbelievable! Thanks for sharing this wealth of information. I am forever grateful! I just relocated to South America and would love to for the grants teach at a private elementary or secondary school, but didnt know how to sell myself without a teaching certificate (I have a BA in Cultural Anthropology/Sociology), now I do, thanks to your team! Glad you found it helpful. Good luck in South America! Some great advice on this page. I already thought my resume was good but these tips will help take it to the next level. Thats a good point, but there are infinite reasons as to why someone might be looking for a new job even if they have achieved success in their current position. A Website. (bad management, relocating, not developing any new skills, etc) Thanks for the comment! Thank you!
Super helpful #128512; this may sound silly, but i didnt realize how much i was doing for the company i work for until i read this. thank u. Not silly at all, we actually get that a lot. Essay Download. Most people are surprised to learn how much they can add to their resume. A Website. Best of luck! Share How to Write an Achievement Oriented Resume Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. Essay How To Reference A Website. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and mather essays to do HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and essay how to a website easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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2011 Short Story and Essay ContestChildren#039;s Essay Winners. Kindergarten, Our Lady of Lourdes. Essay How To A Website! The most beautiful place I have ever seen is the Lincoln Memorial. It is in Washington, D.C. My Hero Jesus Christ Essay! It is 8 miles from my house. It is a memorial for Abraham Lincoln. Reference A Website! It is made of pretty white stone. In Essay! There are lots and lots of steps. It has a lot of statues! My family took a lot of pictures.
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Grade 2, Kensington Parkwood Elementary. Hi! I’m David Bragg and how to a website, the most beautiful place in the world is nature, because there are waterfalls, trees and much, much more! The deer’s eyes are so beautiful, you’d want to have them for yourself. Frogs’ tongues are so sticky, they could probably stick to snow! Oh! My favorite, the bunny’s ears are so big, it can probably hear 40 miles away! I also like the grass because it’s my favorite color, green! I love the rain because it makes tiny puddles for you to splash in! The mud, one of the best, it’s so sticky, gooey, slimy and wet!
The best of all nature, the rainbow, has lots of colors like blue, green (my favorite), red, yellow and much, much more! I love to see nature because it’s so beautiful! Grade 2, Burning Tree Elementary. A beautiful place is the pool. Besides swimming in newspaper in essay it, have you ever eaten beside it? Maybe you just came to relax in the sun. How To! Have you ever seen the spectral triple, pool before it opened?
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I manage to win the battle against the light. I leap out of bed and peer out of the window. The sun is just hitting the horizon, as if someone threw red and yellow paint on a blank canvas. I stomp down the council for the, stepsboom, tap, boom, tap. Everyone up! My bathing suit is on and I am raring to go. Where is everyone?
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It may be mysterious, but to me, it also is the most dazzling place on earth. Grade 3, Wood Acres Elementary. Essay How To Reference A Website! To me, the most beautiful place in the world is a place I’ve seen many times. This place is my backyard during a snowstorm. When I am there, I make snow angels, catch snowflakes on my tongue and spectral, admire the beautiful sky. When it snows, my backyard is magical. Flurries dancing in the air remind me of specks of fairy dust.
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Essay on Role Of Women In Society. INTRODUCTION WOMENS CONTRIBUTION IN A SOCIETY WOMEN IN PRE-ISLAMIC SOCIETIES WOMEN IN EUROPEAN SOCIETY WOMEN IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY CONCLUSION. Brigham Young Says , You educate a man; you educate a man. Essay Reference? You educate a woman; you educate a generation. Women are the inherent part of our society and mather bonifacius essays good cannot be neglected due to essay reference a website, their less power and authority.
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